Unit 15 Beyond gravity
Surviving in space
A voyage to Mars may be every astronaut’s
dream, but the health risks are formidable.
by Michael E. Long
Surviving in space
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1.
2.
True/False/DNS
Everyone who travels in space suffers from
feelings of motion sickness initially.
Motion sickness afflicts more than two-thirds of
all astronauts upon reaching orbit, … (L1)
Astronauts are likely to increase height in
while in space.
Spinal discs expand, and so does the astronaut
– who may gain five centimeters and suffer…
(L13)
Surviving in space
3.
It is important for astronauts to exercise in
order to keep their muscles fit.
4.
Scientists have found a way of protecting
astronauts from solar radiation .
… allowing the crew to take refuge in an area
where polyethylene shielding will absorb the
radiation. (L64-5)
Surviving in space
5.
If astronauts are given tasks to do, they quickly
begin to suffer from stress .
… giving people few tasks. (L78) …give them
little to do, (L81) …
6.
Scientists aim to develop technology that can
recognize psychological states.
Surviving in space
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1.
2.
3.
Decide part of the role of the National
Space Biomedical
Biomedical Research Institute .
NSBRI … will present NASA with a ‘go’ or ‘no
go’ recommendation on a Mars mission. (L35-7)
…a factory to make drugs …to cope with
possible organisms on Mars. (L48-50)
Miniature … devices will image … while a small
X-ray machine keeps track of … (L50-3)
Surviving in space

Complete the diagrams.
Diagrams A and B are about radiation, which is
talked about in the last 2 paragraphs on p.125.
10 Coronal mass ejections fling billions of tons of
11 electrically charged gas into space.
A second kind of radiation, cosmic rays from the
Milky Way or other galaxies, … 12
Surviving in space

Match opinions with experts.
First locate the names of experts:
A Oleg Gazenko
L23
L38, 54
B Jeffrey Sutton
L70
C Francis Cucinotta
L85
D Laurence Young
L92, 101
E Richard Cohen
L102
F Michael Debakey
Surviving in space
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Match opinions with experts.
Keys:

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13
14
15
16
E
A
F
C
(99-100)
(23-24)
(111-3)
(72-3)
Focus on vocabulary
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Keys to Task 1:
1. expansion 2. adaptation, adaptor
3. adjustment 4. density 5. renewal
6. confinement 7. survival, survivor
8. investment, investor 9. disturbance
10. diagnosis
Focus on vocabulary

Keys to Task 2:
1. sight 2. the sun 3. space/the universe
4. stars (planets, moons, comets, asteroids)
5. the body (of living things) 6. the heart
7. the mind 8. diseases of the mind
9. the stomach 10. bones, joints and muscles
Focus on vocabulary
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Keys to Task 3:
1. optical illusion 2. solar eclipses/rays
3. cosmic rays 4. astronomical telescope
5. physiological features
6. cardiac arrest/surgeon
7. psychological warfare/profiling
8. psychiatric illness/hospital
9. gastric ulcer 10. orthopedic surgeon/hospital
Non-finite verbs 非谓语动词
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Participles 分词
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Gerunds 动名词
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Infinitives 不定式
现在分词
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We can see the rising sun.
There was a girl sitting there.
I found a beggar lying on the road.
He remained standing beside the table.
Not receiving any letter from him, I gave
him a call.
Weather permitting, we are going to visit
you tomorrow.
过去分词
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He is a retired worker.
This is the question given.
I’ll have my watch repaired.
She looked tired after a day’s work.
The test finished, we began our holiday.
Given more attention,the trees could have
grown better.
Gerunds
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动名词
Fighting broke out between the South and
the North.
Would you mind turning down your radio
a little, please?
Her job is washing, cleaning and taking
care of the children.
a writing desk, a swimming pool
Gerunds
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动名词
admit 承认appreciate 感激avoid 避免
complete完成consider认为delay 耽误deny
否认detest 讨厌endure 忍受enjoy 喜欢
escape 逃脱fancy 想象finish 完成imagine
想象mind 介意miss 想念postpone推迟
practice 训练recall 回忆resent 讨厌resume
继续resist 抵抗risk 冒险suggest 建议face
面对include 包括stand 忍受understand 理
解forgive 宽恕keep 继续
Gerunds
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动名词
admit to, object to, be accustomed to, be
used to, stick to, turn to, look forward to,
be devoted to, pay attention to, contribute
to devote oneself to, prefer…to
no use, be busy, can't help
Infinitives 不定式
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It's so nice to hear your voice.
I like to keep everything tidy.
We believe him to be guilty.
His dream is to be a doctor.
I have a lot of work to do.
He ran so fast as to catch the first bus.
I'm glad to see you.
省去to 的动词不定式
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情态动词 ( 除ought 外) 后。
使役动词 let, have, make后,感官动词 see,
watch, notice , observe, hear, smell, feel,
find 等后。注意:被动语态中不能省去to。
would rather,had better句型后
Why… / why not…句型后
省去to 的动词不定式
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help 后可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to)
do sth。
but和except后。but前是实义动词do时,
后面出现的不定式不带to。He wants to do
nothing but go out. 他只想出去玩。
由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二
个to 可以省去。
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Unit 15 Beyond gravity 在万有引力之外