COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING
• Information processing is a cognitive theory that examines the way
knowledge enters and is stored in and retrieved from memory.
• Children develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing
information, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex
knowledge and skills.
• The importance of knowledge in learning. Knowledge is the outcome
of learning.
• But knowledge is more than the end product of previous learning;
• It also guides learning.
• One of the most important elements in the learning process is what
the individual brings to the learning situation
DIFFERENT KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE
• General and specific knowledge. General knowledge about how to
read or write or use a word processor is useful.
• Domain specific knowledge pertains to a particular subject or task
• Declarative, Procedural, and conditional knowledge
• Declarative knowledge is knowledge that can be declared, usually in
words, through lectures, books, writing,..”knowing that” something is
the case.
• Procedural knowledge is “knowing how” to perform a task -
intellectual skills.
• Conditional knowledge is “knowing when and why” to apply your
declarative and procedural knowledge. Cognitive strategies.
• To be used knowledge must be remembered. What do we
know about memory?
THE INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL OF MEMORY.
• Memory and thinking. Constructionist learning and Use the computer
as a model.
• Thinking is information processing. Processing involves gathering
and representing information, or encoding; holding information, or
storage; and getting at information when needed, or retrieval
• The role of attention . Variation in colour, movement, sound, smell,
temperature, and so on had to be perceived, life would be impossible.
By paying attention to certain stimuli and ignoring others, we select
from all the possibilities what we will process. We can only pay
attention to only one demanding task at a time. Attention and
teaching
• Metacognition means cognition about cognition, or knowing about
knowing
AN INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL
Three major components: Information stores, Cognitive processes, and
Metacognition
THREE COMPONENTS
• Information Stores are repositories that hold information, analogous
to a computer’s main memory and hard drive. Sensory memory,
working memory, and long-term memory.
• Cognitive Processes - intellectual actions that transform information
and move it from one store to another - include attention, perception,
rehearsal, encoding, and retrieval. They’re analogous to the
programs that direct and transform information in computers
• Metacognition is knowing about and having control over cognitive
processes. It’s a form of self-regulation; it controls and directs
processes that move information from one store to another.
• Examine the information stores, then cognitive processes move
information from one store to another, and last the metacognitve
abilities regulate those processes
SENSORY MEMORY
• Stimuli from the environment constantly bombard our receptors.
• Receptors are the body’s mechanisms for seeing, hearing, tasting,
smelling, and feeling.
• Sensory memory is also called the sensory register or sensory
information store, holds all these sensations - very briefly. It allows
us to hold information long enough to transfer it to working memory,
the next store. In these instants, we have a chance to select and
organize information for further processing.
• Perception and attention are critical at this stage.
Working Memory is short-term memory or the “workbench” of the
memory system, the component of memory where information is held
temporarily and combined with knowledge from the long-term memory.
Its content is activated information - what are you thinking at this
moment. We aren’t aware of the contents of either sensory memory or
long-term memory until they’re pulled into working memory
CARTOON
Can we hurry up and get to the test?
My short-term memory is better than my long-term memory
LT memory holds the information that is well learned. Well learned info.
Is said to be high in memory strength or durability
• While working memory holds the info. That is currently activated,
such as tele. No. you’ve just found and are about to dial
Long-term memory: mental work and processing (elaboration,
organization, context)
MAKING CONNECTION IN LONG-TERM MEMOR. Encoding is the process of
placing info. In L.T. memory. So when encoding info. Our goal is for it to be
meaningful
LONG-TERM MEMORY
PERMANENT INFORMATION STORE
• Long-term memory is divided into subtypes of declarative and
procedural memory.
• Declarative is subdivided into episodic M. and semantic memory
• Episodic memory is the retention of information about where and
when life’s happenings. The guests who came to talk are episodic
• Semantic memory is a general knowledge about the world.
• Declarative knowledge is mentally stored in the form of schemas,
which are complex networks of connected information. Schemas
combine simpler form of information - propositions, linear orderings,
and images.
• Schemas are individual constructed, dynamic, and contextual.
Long-term memory’s content.
Declarative: episodic memory and semantic memory
Declarative M. is the conscious recollection of info. Such as specific
facts or events that can be verbally communicated. “knowing that ,” or
explicit memory
REPRESENTING PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE IN MEMORY
CONDITIONS AND ACTIONS
• P. K. involves” knowing how to
perform tasks”
• Learners need to adapt to
changing conditions and then
act according to these
conditions.
• P.K also depends on declarative
knowledge; you must first know
the rule to adapt to the
different conditions and
correctly perform .
• P.K is developed in three
stages. In D. stage, learners
acquire D. K about the
procedure.
IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT IN ACQUIRING PROCEDURAL
KNOWLEDGE: LEARNERS IDENITFY CONDITIONS IN A LEARNING SIT.
• During the associative stage, learners can perform the
procedure but must think about what they are doing, and
their thoughts occupy most of their working memory.
• With additional practice, learners move to the automatic
stage, can perform the process with little conscious
thought
• Practice in using P.K. in a variety of contexts, which involves
embedding problems and exercises in a variety of realistic settings.
COGNITIVE PROCESSES
Attention, perception, rehearsal, encoding, and retrieval
• Attention which is the process of consciously focusing on a stimulus
or stimuli. Attention is where learning begins. Strategies for
attracting students’ attention
THINKING: FORMING CONCEPTS, REASONING, AND THINKING CAREFULLY, AND
PROBLEMS SOLVING
Concepts are mental structures that categorize sets of objects, events, or
ideas. Ex. If learners saw the polygons they would describe them all as
triangles even the shapes vary in size and orientation.
• “Triangle “ represents a mental structure into which all examples of
triangles can be placed
CONCEPTS IN DIFFERENT CONTENT AREAS
• Concepts help is simplify the world. The concept ‘triangle’ for
example, allows people to think and to talk about the examples in the
previous picture as a group, instead of as specific objects.
• Having to remember each separately would make learning
impossibly complex and unwieldy
THREE MAIN PHASES IN CONCEPT ATTAINMENT TEACHING
Schemas as Scripts
• Schemas can also guide our actions. And Scripts are ‘schemas
representations for events.” As plans for action in particular
situations.
• Schemas are important for teaching and learning for at least two
reasons:
• 1. Help us understand why background knowledge and the way it’s
organized are so important.
• 2. Help reduce the load on working memory.
• The organization of info. In LT memory and the reduced load on
working memory suggest that teaching and learning should focus on
relationships among items of info. We expect students to learn.
• Learning info. In isolated bits is less effective than learning that
stresses links and connections
IN THE MIND OF EXPERT AND NOVICE
PROBLEMS SOLVING MODEL
METACOGNITION
TEACHING FOR TRANSFER
• WHAT IS TRANSFER?
• TYPES OF TRANSFER
METACOGNITION; DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES, INFORMATION PROCESSING
MODEL, AND EXPLRONG STRATEGIES AND METACOGNITIVE REGULATION OF
STRATEGIES.
INVOLVE ME!!!!