COGNITIVE VIEWS OF LEARNING • Information processing is a cognitive theory that examines the way knowledge enters and is stored in and retrieved from memory. • Children develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills. • The importance of knowledge in learning. Knowledge is the outcome of learning. • But knowledge is more than the end product of previous learning; • It also guides learning. • One of the most important elements in the learning process is what the individual brings to the learning situation DIFFERENT KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE • General and specific knowledge. General knowledge about how to read or write or use a word processor is useful. • Domain specific knowledge pertains to a particular subject or task • Declarative, Procedural, and conditional knowledge • Declarative knowledge is knowledge that can be declared, usually in words, through lectures, books, writing,..”knowing that” something is the case. • Procedural knowledge is “knowing how” to perform a task - intellectual skills. • Conditional knowledge is “knowing when and why” to apply your declarative and procedural knowledge. Cognitive strategies. • To be used knowledge must be remembered. What do we know about memory? THE INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL OF MEMORY. • Memory and thinking. Constructionist learning and Use the computer as a model. • Thinking is information processing. Processing involves gathering and representing information, or encoding; holding information, or storage; and getting at information when needed, or retrieval • The role of attention . Variation in colour, movement, sound, smell, temperature, and so on had to be perceived, life would be impossible. By paying attention to certain stimuli and ignoring others, we select from all the possibilities what we will process. We can only pay attention to only one demanding task at a time. Attention and teaching • Metacognition means cognition about cognition, or knowing about knowing AN INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL Three major components: Information stores, Cognitive processes, and Metacognition THREE COMPONENTS • Information Stores are repositories that hold information, analogous to a computer’s main memory and hard drive. Sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. • Cognitive Processes - intellectual actions that transform information and move it from one store to another - include attention, perception, rehearsal, encoding, and retrieval. They’re analogous to the programs that direct and transform information in computers • Metacognition is knowing about and having control over cognitive processes. It’s a form of self-regulation; it controls and directs processes that move information from one store to another. • Examine the information stores, then cognitive processes move information from one store to another, and last the metacognitve abilities regulate those processes SENSORY MEMORY • Stimuli from the environment constantly bombard our receptors. • Receptors are the body’s mechanisms for seeing, hearing, tasting, smelling, and feeling. • Sensory memory is also called the sensory register or sensory information store, holds all these sensations - very briefly. It allows us to hold information long enough to transfer it to working memory, the next store. In these instants, we have a chance to select and organize information for further processing. • Perception and attention are critical at this stage. Working Memory is short-term memory or the “workbench” of the memory system, the component of memory where information is held temporarily and combined with knowledge from the long-term memory. Its content is activated information - what are you thinking at this moment. We aren’t aware of the contents of either sensory memory or long-term memory until they’re pulled into working memory CARTOON Can we hurry up and get to the test? My short-term memory is better than my long-term memory LT memory holds the information that is well learned. Well learned info. Is said to be high in memory strength or durability • While working memory holds the info. That is currently activated, such as tele. No. you’ve just found and are about to dial Long-term memory: mental work and processing (elaboration, organization, context) MAKING CONNECTION IN LONG-TERM MEMOR. Encoding is the process of placing info. In L.T. memory. So when encoding info. Our goal is for it to be meaningful LONG-TERM MEMORY PERMANENT INFORMATION STORE • Long-term memory is divided into subtypes of declarative and procedural memory. • Declarative is subdivided into episodic M. and semantic memory • Episodic memory is the retention of information about where and when life’s happenings. The guests who came to talk are episodic • Semantic memory is a general knowledge about the world. • Declarative knowledge is mentally stored in the form of schemas, which are complex networks of connected information. Schemas combine simpler form of information - propositions, linear orderings, and images. • Schemas are individual constructed, dynamic, and contextual. Long-term memory’s content. Declarative: episodic memory and semantic memory Declarative M. is the conscious recollection of info. Such as specific facts or events that can be verbally communicated. “knowing that ,” or explicit memory REPRESENTING PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE IN MEMORY CONDITIONS AND ACTIONS • P. K. involves” knowing how to perform tasks” • Learners need to adapt to changing conditions and then act according to these conditions. • P.K also depends on declarative knowledge; you must first know the rule to adapt to the different conditions and correctly perform . • P.K is developed in three stages. In D. stage, learners acquire D. K about the procedure. IMPORTANCE OF CONTEXT IN ACQUIRING PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE: LEARNERS IDENITFY CONDITIONS IN A LEARNING SIT. • During the associative stage, learners can perform the procedure but must think about what they are doing, and their thoughts occupy most of their working memory. • With additional practice, learners move to the automatic stage, can perform the process with little conscious thought • Practice in using P.K. in a variety of contexts, which involves embedding problems and exercises in a variety of realistic settings. COGNITIVE PROCESSES Attention, perception, rehearsal, encoding, and retrieval • Attention which is the process of consciously focusing on a stimulus or stimuli. Attention is where learning begins. Strategies for attracting students’ attention THINKING: FORMING CONCEPTS, REASONING, AND THINKING CAREFULLY, AND PROBLEMS SOLVING Concepts are mental structures that categorize sets of objects, events, or ideas. Ex. If learners saw the polygons they would describe them all as triangles even the shapes vary in size and orientation. • “Triangle “ represents a mental structure into which all examples of triangles can be placed CONCEPTS IN DIFFERENT CONTENT AREAS • Concepts help is simplify the world. The concept ‘triangle’ for example, allows people to think and to talk about the examples in the previous picture as a group, instead of as specific objects. • Having to remember each separately would make learning impossibly complex and unwieldy THREE MAIN PHASES IN CONCEPT ATTAINMENT TEACHING Schemas as Scripts • Schemas can also guide our actions. And Scripts are ‘schemas representations for events.” As plans for action in particular situations. • Schemas are important for teaching and learning for at least two reasons: • 1. Help us understand why background knowledge and the way it’s organized are so important. • 2. Help reduce the load on working memory. • The organization of info. In LT memory and the reduced load on working memory suggest that teaching and learning should focus on relationships among items of info. We expect students to learn. • Learning info. In isolated bits is less effective than learning that stresses links and connections IN THE MIND OF EXPERT AND NOVICE PROBLEMS SOLVING MODEL METACOGNITION TEACHING FOR TRANSFER • WHAT IS TRANSFER? • TYPES OF TRANSFER METACOGNITION; DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES, INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL, AND EXPLRONG STRATEGIES AND METACOGNITIVE REGULATION OF STRATEGIES. INVOLVE ME!!!!