Latin America and Its
Independence
1800 - 1830
Presentation Overview
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Part One:
Latin America in 1800
Part Two:
Causes of Latin
American Revolutions
Part Three:
The Revolutions
Part Four:
Results of the
Revolutions
Part One: Latin America in 1800
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A. Geography of an
Empire
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Spanish colonies - 1/3
of the Americas
Portuguese Controlled Brazil
Part One: Latin America in 1800
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B. Government
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1. Run by
peninsulares
(Royalists)
• Spanish or Portuguese
appointed
• Supported by the
military
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2. Majority of people
had no voice
Part One: Latin America in 1800
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C. Economic
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1. Mercantilism
• Support Mother country
• Supply raw materials to
mother country
• Manufacturing
restricted
• Peninsulares run mines
and trade
Part One: Latin America in 1800
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D. Social Order

Stratified - Based on
blood
• 1. Peninsulares Spanish born in Spain
• 2. Creoles - Spanish
born in America
• 3. Mestizo - Spanish
and Indian blood
• 4. Mulattoes - Spanish
and African blood
• 5. Indians
• 6. Africans
Part Two: Causes of Latin
American Revolutions
1800 - 1830
Part Two: Causes of Revolution
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A. Political Causes
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1. Napoleon’s
takeover of Spain &
Portugal - 1808
2. “Taxation without
consultation” - angers
creoles (no say)
Part Two: Causes of Revolution
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B. Economic Causes
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Trade Restrictions
• Supply raw materials to
mother country (e.g.
coffee, sugar, hides,
silver)
• Hurt development of
manufacturing
• Forced to remain
dependent
Part Two: Causes of Revolution
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C. Social Causes
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1. Peninsulares and
Creoles - racist attitude on
lower classes
2. 3/5ths of population Indians (except Chile &
Argentina)
3. Freed Slaves - forced
military service and taxes
4. Indians - Forced labor in
mines (mita) and taxed
goods (repartimiento)
Part Two: Causes of Revolution
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D. Intellectual Causes

1. Enlightenment ideas
• Free trade & speech,
equality before law

“Man is born free and
everywhere he is in chains”
(Rousseau)

American and French
Revolutions successful
“My children, this day comes to us .
. . Are you ready to receive it? Will
you be free? Will you make the
effort to recover from the hated
Spaniards the lands stolen from
your forefathers 300 years ago?”
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla (1810)
Part Three: The
Revolutions
1800 - 1830
Part Three: The Revolutions
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A. 1807 - 1825 - All
Spanish & Portuguese
colonies in N. & S.
America gain their
independence
B. Led by Simon Bolivar
(Bolivia, Colombia, Peru,
Ecuador, Panama, and
Venezuela) and Jose de
San Martin (Peru,
Argentina, Chile)
C. Never able to unify all
peoples
D. Peninsulares driven
from power
Part Four: Results of Revolutions
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A. Political Results
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1. Creoles assume
power
2. Republics
proclaimed in name
only
3. Military dictators
(caudillos) emerge
4. Political instability
• Venezuela 52 different
governments in 1800s
Part Four: Results of Revolutions
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A. Political Results
Continued
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5. Fight over borders
6. Catholic Church vies for control
7. Monroe Doctrine Europeans don’t come
back - U.S. and Britain
will dominate new
states
Part Four: Results of Revolutions
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B. Economic Results
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1. Wars disrupt trade
with Spain - hurt state
economically
2. Peasants forced
into military - hurts
farm production
3. Private farms
(haciendas) seized
4. Countries exploited
by Great Britain and
U.S.
Part Four: Results of Revolutions
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C. Social Results
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1. Some slaves
granted freedom for
military service
2. Legal Equality in
name only
3. Racism remains
4. Indians, blacks,
mestizoes & mulattoes
- few gains
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Part Four: Results of Revolutions