Chapter 15
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Student notes
15-1 Homework
• Define each vocabulary word in at least 1
complete sentence.
• Write out all key concepts.
15-1 The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity
Objective:
• Describe the pattern Darwin observed among
organisms of the Galapagos Islands
• Who was Charles Darwin?
• What time did he live in and where did he live?
• What was his great contribution to science?
15–1 The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity
A.
Voyage of the Beagle
Figure 15–1 Darwin’s
Voyage
B. Darwin’s Observations
1. Patterns of Diversity
2. Living Organisms and Fossils
3. The Galapagos Islands
Section 15-1
Giant Tortoises of the
Galápagos Islands
Pinta
Pinta Island
Intermediate
shell
Fernandin
a
Isabela
Tower
Marchena
James
Santa
Cruz
Santa Fe
Hood Island
Floreana
Isabela Island
Dome-shaped shell
Hood
Saddle-backed
shell
C. The Journey Home
• collection of fossils and species found on
mainland and the islands
•
observations of the characteristics similarities
and differences
•
Was there a common ancestor?
•
What did his travels reveal to him?
•
What were the differences of species from the
mainland verse those found on the island?
15–1 Homework
Answer all question in section assessment on page
372 in at least 3 complete sentences.
15–2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s Thinking
Objective:
•
How did Hutton and Lyell describe geological
change
•
Identify how Lamark thought species evolved
•
Describe Malthus’s theory of population
growth
15–2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s Thinking
At Darwin’s time most believed:
*How old is the earth?
*What is the evidence for both theories?
15-2 Homework
• Write out all key concepts.
• Define each vocabulary words in at least 1 complete
sentence.
A.
An Ancient, Changing Earth
– Hutton and Lyell helped scientists
1.
•
Hutton’s Theory of Geological Change
1795 geologist, theory that geological forces
that have shaped earth
2. Darwin received a copy of geologist Charles
Lyell’s book
Movement of Earth’s Crust
Section 15-2
Sea
level
Sea
level
Sedimentary
rocks form in
horizontal
layers.
When part of
Earth’s crust is
compressed, a
bend in a rock
forms, tilting the
rock layers.
As the surface
erodes due to
water, wind, waves,
or glaciers, the
older rock surface is
exposed.
New sediment is
then deposited
above the
exposed older
rock surface.
B.
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck preceded Darwin
1.
Tendency Toward Perfection
2.
Use and Disuse
3.
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
4.
Evaluating Lamarck’s Theory
When Is a Flipper a Wing?
All living things are related. Some relationships are
easy to see— your pet cat may not roar like a lion,
but it clearly resembles one.
Other relationships are less obvious.
15–3 Darwin Presents His Case
Objective:
• List the events leading to Darwin’s publication
of On the Origin of Species
•
Describe how natural variation is used in
artificial selection
•
Explain how natural selection is related to
species’ fitness
•
State Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural
selection.
15–3 Homework:
•
Write out all key concepts.
•
Define each vocabulary words in at least one
complete sentence.
15–3 Darwin Presents His Case
A. Publication of On the Origin of
Species
B. Natural Variation and Artificial
Selection
C. Evolution by Natural Selection
1. The Struggle for Existence
2.
Survival of the Fittest
3.
Descent With Modification
D. Evidence of Evolution
1.
The Fossil Record
2.
Geographic Distribution of Living
Species
3.
Homologous Body Structures
4.
Similarities in Early Development
1.
The Fossil Record
2.
Geographic Distribution of Living
Species
3.
Homologous Body Structures
Section 15-3
Turtle
Figure 15–15 Homologous
Body Structures
Alligato
r
Typical primitive fish
Bird
Mammal
s
4.
Similarities in Early Development
E. Summary of Darwin’s Theory
Concept Map
Section 15-3
Evidence of
Evolution
includes
The fossil
record
Geographic
distribution of
living species
Homologous
body structures
Similarities
in early
development
which is composed of
which indicates
which implies
which implies
Physical
remains of
organisms
Common
ancestral
species
Similar genes
Similar genes
Section 15-3 Homework:
Answer all assessment question on page 386 in
at least 3 complete sentences.
Chapter 15 Summary Questions
Homework:
Answer all assessment question on page 389 #110 in at least 3 complete sentences.