Chapter 15 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Student notes 15-1 Homework • Define each vocabulary word in at least 1 complete sentence. • Write out all key concepts. 15-1 The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity Objective: • Describe the pattern Darwin observed among organisms of the Galapagos Islands • Who was Charles Darwin? • What time did he live in and where did he live? • What was his great contribution to science? 15–1 The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity A. Voyage of the Beagle Figure 15–1 Darwin’s Voyage B. Darwin’s Observations 1. Patterns of Diversity 2. Living Organisms and Fossils 3. The Galapagos Islands Section 15-1 Giant Tortoises of the Galápagos Islands Pinta Pinta Island Intermediate shell Fernandin a Isabela Tower Marchena James Santa Cruz Santa Fe Hood Island Floreana Isabela Island Dome-shaped shell Hood Saddle-backed shell C. The Journey Home • collection of fossils and species found on mainland and the islands • observations of the characteristics similarities and differences • Was there a common ancestor? • What did his travels reveal to him? • What were the differences of species from the mainland verse those found on the island? 15–1 Homework Answer all question in section assessment on page 372 in at least 3 complete sentences. 15–2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s Thinking Objective: • How did Hutton and Lyell describe geological change • Identify how Lamark thought species evolved • Describe Malthus’s theory of population growth 15–2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s Thinking At Darwin’s time most believed: *How old is the earth? *What is the evidence for both theories? 15-2 Homework • Write out all key concepts. • Define each vocabulary words in at least 1 complete sentence. A. An Ancient, Changing Earth – Hutton and Lyell helped scientists 1. • Hutton’s Theory of Geological Change 1795 geologist, theory that geological forces that have shaped earth 2. Darwin received a copy of geologist Charles Lyell’s book Movement of Earth’s Crust Section 15-2 Sea level Sea level Sedimentary rocks form in horizontal layers. When part of Earth’s crust is compressed, a bend in a rock forms, tilting the rock layers. As the surface erodes due to water, wind, waves, or glaciers, the older rock surface is exposed. New sediment is then deposited above the exposed older rock surface. B. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck preceded Darwin 1. Tendency Toward Perfection 2. Use and Disuse 3. Inheritance of Acquired Traits 4. Evaluating Lamarck’s Theory When Is a Flipper a Wing? All living things are related. Some relationships are easy to see— your pet cat may not roar like a lion, but it clearly resembles one. Other relationships are less obvious. 15–3 Darwin Presents His Case Objective: • List the events leading to Darwin’s publication of On the Origin of Species • Describe how natural variation is used in artificial selection • Explain how natural selection is related to species’ fitness • State Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. 15–3 Homework: • Write out all key concepts. • Define each vocabulary words in at least one complete sentence. 15–3 Darwin Presents His Case A. Publication of On the Origin of Species B. Natural Variation and Artificial Selection C. Evolution by Natural Selection 1. The Struggle for Existence 2. Survival of the Fittest 3. Descent With Modification D. Evidence of Evolution 1. The Fossil Record 2. Geographic Distribution of Living Species 3. Homologous Body Structures 4. Similarities in Early Development 1. The Fossil Record 2. Geographic Distribution of Living Species 3. Homologous Body Structures Section 15-3 Turtle Figure 15–15 Homologous Body Structures Alligato r Typical primitive fish Bird Mammal s 4. Similarities in Early Development E. Summary of Darwin’s Theory Concept Map Section 15-3 Evidence of Evolution includes The fossil record Geographic distribution of living species Homologous body structures Similarities in early development which is composed of which indicates which implies which implies Physical remains of organisms Common ancestral species Similar genes Similar genes Section 15-3 Homework: Answer all assessment question on page 386 in at least 3 complete sentences. Chapter 15 Summary Questions Homework: Answer all assessment question on page 389 #110 in at least 3 complete sentences.