Designing Radical Change
Cassie Solomon
[email protected]
www.thenewgroupconsulting.com
www.RACI-Training.com
September, 2011
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75% of change efforts fail – why?
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But there is a way to improve
these odds
• There is nothing
so useful as a
good theory.
Kurt Lewin
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The good news is that we are
good at change.
• Behavior is the key
• Adapting to our environment is key
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Anthropology contributes a
behavioral view of work
Scene
Practice
Behavior is
something you can
observe.
Behavior
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Rule #1
Describe the change you want to
see in terms of behavior.
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Exercise One: Construct a Scene
• Think like a screenwriter or a playwright
• Who are the characters? What do they look and
sound like?
• Set the scene - where are they?
• What tools are they using?
• What is the dialogue? What are they saying?
• This is an exercise in focusing on behavior.
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Behavior is imbedded in 8 systems
Physical
Virtual
 Work Process
 Org chart
 Meetings cycle
Workplace
Design
Organization
 Roles
 Responsibility
Decision
Allocation
Task
Behavior
Information
Distribution
People
 Skills
• Training
Rewards
 Compensation
 Intrinsic & Social rewards
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Measurement
 Metrics
 Who has access
to information?
Work Systems. Source: Copyright Shea & Associates, Inc.
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Rule #2:
Design the environment to support the
changes you seek.
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Rule #3: Shea’s Maxim
The more systems you change, the better;
change at least four.
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Exploring the eight elements of
a system
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
People
Measurement
Rewards
Organization
Decision-Making
Information Distribution
Workplace Design
Task
PROWD TIMe
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People
• Who is involved in the scene?
• Do they currently have the right
skills?
• Do you need to provide training?
• Can you provide examples?
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Rewards
Extrinsic Rewards
– Aligning compensation
– Pay for Performance
– Bonus pay
Intrinsic Rewards
Social Rewards
– Recognition
– Stretch assignments
– Visibility
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Measurement
“In God we trust, all others bring data.”
Dr. W. Edward Deming
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Information Distribution
• Who gets the information?
• When?
• How is performance measured in the
system, and who sees that?
• BEST PRACTICE INFORMATION
• PERFORMANCE VISIBILITY
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Organization
• Organization can mean lines and boxes,
where roles fit into the structure
• It can mean meeting systems, too.
These involve who needs to collaborate
and share information with whom.
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Decision Allocation
• Who is involved and HOW?
• Who is accountable?
• Where is the authority to make
decisions or accept
recommendations?
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Workplace
design
•
•
•
•
•
•
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Ease of use… physical & virtual space
Design for quality
Think lean manufacturing
Tools – physical and virtual
Physical architecture – proximity
Hardwiring with technology
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Task
Process Mapping or Planning
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The Power of ROLE is often
overlooked
• Where do you fit in the structure?
– Organization
• What work are you responsible for?
– Task
• How much authority do you have to make
decisions?
– Decision making
• What skills and competencies do you need?
– People
Work Systems. Source: Copyright Shea & Associates, Inc.
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RACI: The Decision Making
“
Lever
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Most organizations have two
structures operating simultaneously.
Boss
Sponsor
Manager
Committee or Task
Vertical Structure
Force or Project
You
are
here,
too.
You are
here
Horizontal/Project
Structure
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RACI Codes Defined
Responsible
“R”
Authorize
“A”
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The individual(s) who actually completes the task,
the action/implementation. Responsibility can be
shared.
The individual who is ultimately responsible.
Includes yes or no authority and veto power.
Consult
“C”
The individual(s) or groups to be consulted prior to
a final decision or action.
Inform
“I”
The individual(s) or groups who needs to be
informed after a decision or action is taken.
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The Output: A RACI Matrix
Roles of Participation
Decisions
or
Activities
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Type or degree
of participation
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1. Document expenses
Region
Accounting
A/R
2. Complete expense form
A
3. Forward to supervisor
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Supervisor
Role/
Functions
Secretary
Decision/
Tasks
Employee
RACI Matrix Example
R
C
R
4. Review
C
5. Approve
I
I
6. Forward to region
I
R
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R
A
A
To create an effective team, clarify
the role of the group
If the team’s
role is an
Then this is what the team is
doing …
R
A
C
Creating a recommendation
I
Getting or sharing information
Approving or vetoing a proposal
Giving advice or consultation BEFORE a
decision is made, while a plan is being
formulated
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Use RACI codes on your meeting
agendas to clarify the role of the
group
Agenda Item
Person (R)
Role of the Group
1. Implementation plan
Mary
R
2. Vacation policy
changes
Tom
I
3. Quality scorecard
Terri
C
Plan the time you give each topic according
to the group’s role for that item;
“I” topics should have the least time.
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Empowerment and team
development
• The more authority and autonomy you give a
group, the more it will develop into a team.
• How will you know if a team is developing?
• It will begin to express and experience differences
of opinion.
• If you want a team to develop, you will need to
give it the resource of enough TIME to work.
Ask yourself, “Can I give my team more C’s,
R’s and A’s?”
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The recipe for an effective
team
• Using RACI and other tools, clarify the
following:
– Deadline
– Agency and representation
– Role of the Group – Use a RACI
chart
– Task
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Advice to sponsors
• Clarify the group’s role on the issue:
A, R or C - Avoid “I” groups at all cost
• Clarify your own role(s)
• Clarify the task
• Set aggressive deadlines and give the group
time to do its work
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One methodology for
leading change
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Step 1: Create a microcosm group
• Meaning “the world in little”
• A smaller system which is
representative of or analogous to a
larger one; a small, complete world
• Who do you represent in this group?
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Step 2. Agree on the current
state
•
•
•
•
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Use data
Share the view across the silos
Work on the group dynamics
Establish “felt need” by
understanding the problem
Step 3. Give the group simple
design tools
• Teach the Shea Work Systems
Model
• Teach RACI to analyze decisionmaking and roles
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Step 4. Use Idealized Design
•
•
•
•
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Russell Ackoff planning methodology
Frees people from current constraints
Allows more creative thinking
Design using the Shea Work Systems
Model
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Step 5. Refine the recommendation
• Use the group or sub-groups to refine the
recommendation
• Pull in other people as necessary or desirable
• Pull together the business case for the changes
you want to make
• Present the final recommendation for approval
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Resources
• Work Systems Model
– Greg Shea – www.gregoryshea.com
– Cassie Solomon –
[email protected]
– www.thenewgroupconsulting.com
• RACI training materials, and information
www.RACI-Training.com
Books
• Designing Radical Change by Gregory P. Shea
PhD. and Cassie Solomon, Wharton Digital Press,
Spring 2012.
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Designing Radical Change