----------------------------------------------------
SOCIAL WORK IN CANADA
-----------------------------------
An Introduction
Third Edition
Chapter 7: Social Work with Groups and Communities
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work With Groups & Communities





Social Work with Groups
The Stages of Group Development
Group Facilitation Skills
Social Work with Communities
Phases of Community Work
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Groups
Group work can be defined as assisting a
collection of people who are dealing generally
with a similar problem or issue.
Groups can be peers, a family, or a therapeutic
group.
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Groups
Kinds of Groups
 Self-help groups
 Educational groups
 Support/therapeutic groups
 Task groups
 Social action groups
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Groups
Group Dynamics include how people talk and
interact with each other in the group, a sense of
belonging to the group, and the influence that a
group has on individual members to conform to
certain behaviours, practices, and beliefs.
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
The Stages of Group Development
There are five group stages:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Forming – planning and creating a group
Storming – conflict emerges within the group
Norming – roles are defined and trust begins
Performing – work towards the goal begins
Adjourning – conclusion of group
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
The Stages of Group Development
The Forming Stage:





Planning the group and getting started
Purpose should be defined
Determine length, frequency, and duration of meetings
Facilitator takes active role in structure and format of group
Ground rules are discussed and established
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
The Stages of Group Development
The Storming Stage:





Conflict emerges in the group
Differences in understanding of group’s purpose and member
roles can lead to friction
Members test and challenge the authority of the facilitator
Relationships are established
Facilitator establishes tone for the group
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
The Stages of Group Development
The Norming Stage:




Group norms become more clearly defined
Members establish trust with each other
Group cohesion increases
Group moves toward working on the agreed upon objectives
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
The Stages of Group Development
The Performing Stage:




Group members work toward achieving outlined goals
Trust and a sense of confidence with each other are evident
Members might disclose painful personal issues from their
past
Group cohesion is strong and participation is good
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
The Stages of Group Development
The Performing Stage:




Group members work towards terminating
Group members may start disengaging from each other
Some members may express increased anxiety about
group ending
One of the tasks is evaluating the group experience
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Group Facilitation Skills
There are specific group facilitation skills to
learn:






Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Connecting
Focus on process
Cueing
Supporting
Blocking
Social empathy
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Communities
A community is a group of people who share either
a geographic space, an identity, or an interest.
There are a number of different approaches to
community development.
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Communities
Rothman’s Model of Community Work:
1960s: Jack Rothman summarized community work as fitting
into three types:
 Locality development
 Social planning
 Social action
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Communities
Saul Alinsky’s Approach to Community Activism:





Approach is confrontational and strategic
Community organizing is a process of going to war
Battle power holders to demand distribution of
resources
Disdainful of idealist approaches
Start where people are
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Communities
Paulo Freire’s Approach to Community Mobilization:




Begins with a listening survey
Organizer and community members go through findings
of listening survey
Process of reflection and action called praxis
Committed to people being empowered to create a
social justice revolution
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Communities
Women-Centred and Feminist Approaches to
Community Work:



Focus on women as key to their communities
Rely on consensus decision making, shared leadership,
and process orientation
Geared to more long-term changes involving small
groups of citizens coming together
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Communities
Community Capacity Building:




Builds upon the strengths and assets of a community
Communities should develop their own resources
Create a map of resources
Map becomes foundation from which community
members work to further develop their assets
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Social Work with Communities
Community Work as Healing:




Looks at the building of community as a healing practice
Community members draw on community traditions
and values as part of a process of healing
Often used by Aboriginal groups and spiritual
communities
Useful in helping people remove internal obstacles to
meaningful participation
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Phases of Community Work
Bill Lee breaks down community work into a series
of discrete phases:







Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Pre-entry
Contact and engagement
Community analysis
Organizational development
Action planning and mobilization
Conflict resolution
Evaluation
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Websites
 Self-Help Resource Centre
www.selfhelp.on.ca
 Canadian Directory of Genetic Support Groups
www.lbsc.on.ca/programs/medgenet
 Tamarack: An Institute for Community Engagement
www.tamarackcommunity.ca
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Questions for Discussion
What are strengths and weaknesses of
individual vs. community approaches?
Why/when might you use one over another?
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Questions for Discussion
Reviewing the approaches to community practice,
which one seems most relevant to you for your area of
practice?
Discuss reasons why with a classmate.
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Questions for Discussion
What strategies might you use when mobilizing
a group of people with diverse backgrounds?
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Questions for Discussion
How would you approach working with a group
composed of people who have a different socioeconomic or ethnic background from your own?
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
----------------------------------------------------
Questions for Discussion
What approach might you use when organizing
a group of youth around education issues?
How might your approach differ from organizing
parents and older community members?
Would some elements be the same?
Chapter 7:
Social Work With Groups and Communities
Social Work In Canada
Copyright © 2010 Thompson Educational Publishing, Inc.
Download

SOCIAL WORK IN CANADA An Introduction Third Edition