Greek Achievements Art, Philosophy, & Science Statues and Paintings People were portrayed in their ideal form, paying close attention to details. Marble and stone were realistically carved, showing muscle and detail of fabric. Painting on pottery were usually only done in two colors (red and black) Orders of Architecture Greek architecture had Doric three orders: (simple) Doric, Ionic, Corinthian. Ionic Each of these (scrolls) orders is clear when you look at the building’s columns. Corinthian (acanthus leaves) Temples Were designed using columns on the exterior The Parthenon is the most impressive of temples still standing The exterior and interior were decorated with carvings Phidias created a large statue of Athena on the inside Writing Greeks created new forms of writing (drama and history) Drama was part of religious ceremonies. Scenes were performed by actors and singers to honor the gods. Attending these plays became one of the most popular form of entertainment Writers of Tragedies Described hardships faced by Greek heroes Famous writers of tragedy Aeschylus - the father of tragedy Sophocles wrote the famous play “Oedipus the King,” about a man who unknowingly kills is his father. Comedies Made fun of people and ideas Aristophanes - used comedy to make serious points about war, courts of law, and famous people History Thucydides was an Athenian who wrote about the Peloponesian War. He tried to keep his account neutral. Other historians after Thucydides wrote in a similar style. Philosophy A group of people who began to question the explanations about life that Greek mythology gave Believed in the power of the human mind to think, explain, and understand life. Socrates The greatest philosopher Socratic method - would teach by presenting a question and then challenging the answer He encouraged students to question their own beliefs This made leaders angry and he was tried and found guilty of corrupting the youth His friends and students watched on as Socrates was given hemlock, drank it, and died Plato Was a student of Socrates Started a school - The Academy His most famous writing was The Republic The Republic talked about Plato’s idea for an ideal society based on justice and fairness, and run by philosophers Aristotle A student of Plato Believed everything should be done in moderation (not too greedy nor too giving) Believed moderation was based on reason (clear and ordered thinking) Made great advances in logic. He argued that you could use facts to figure out new facts. Aristotle inspired Greek scientists to look closely at the world we live in. Mathematics Euclid - was a mathematician who focused on geometry Many of the geometry rules you study in math comes from him Hypatia - female who taught mathematics and astronomy Medicine Doctors studied the human body to understand how it worked. Hippocrates - wanted to find ways to cure disease. Best known for the Hippocratic Oath - how doctors should behave. Engineering Made discoveries that we still use today. (especially the methods in which we build large structures) Archimedes - a scientist who invented the water screw still used by farmers to bring water from a lower level to a higher one to water crops. Some inventors even came up with mechanical toys. Review What were the two main types of art? (Describe) What were the three orders of architecture? Who were the three main philosophers? Who were Euclid and Hypatia? What discoveries were made in engineering?