Greek Achievements
Art, Philosophy, & Science
Statues and Paintings
People were portrayed
in their ideal form,
paying close attention to
details.
Marble and stone were
realistically carved,
showing muscle and
detail of fabric.
Painting on pottery were
usually only done in two
colors (red and black)
Orders of Architecture
Greek
architecture had
Doric
three orders:
(simple)
Doric, Ionic,
Corinthian.
Ionic
Each of these
(scrolls)
orders is clear
when you look at
the building’s
columns.
Corinthian
(acanthus
leaves)
Temples
Were designed using columns on the
exterior
The Parthenon is the most impressive
of temples still standing
The exterior and interior were decorated
with carvings
Phidias created a large statue of Athena
on the inside
Writing
Greeks created new forms of writing
(drama and history)
Drama was part of religious
ceremonies.
Scenes were performed by actors and
singers to honor the gods.
Attending these plays became one of
the most popular form of entertainment
Writers of Tragedies
Described hardships
faced by Greek heroes
Famous writers of tragedy
Aeschylus - the father of
tragedy
Sophocles wrote the
famous play “Oedipus the
King,” about a man who
unknowingly kills is his
father.
Comedies
Made fun of people and ideas
Aristophanes - used comedy to make
serious points about war, courts of law,
and famous people
History
Thucydides was an Athenian who wrote
about the Peloponesian War.
He tried to keep his account neutral.
Other historians after Thucydides wrote
in a similar style.
Philosophy
A group of people who
began to question the
explanations about life
that Greek mythology
gave
Believed in the power
of the human mind to
think, explain, and
understand life.
Socrates
The greatest philosopher
Socratic method - would teach by presenting a
question and then challenging the answer
He encouraged students to question their own beliefs
This made leaders angry and he was tried and found
guilty of corrupting the youth
His friends and students watched on as Socrates was
given hemlock, drank it, and died
Plato
Was a student of Socrates
Started a school - The Academy
His most famous writing was The
Republic
The Republic talked about Plato’s idea for
an ideal society based on justice and
fairness, and run by philosophers
Aristotle
A student of Plato
Believed everything should be done in
moderation (not too greedy nor too giving)
Believed moderation was based on reason
(clear and ordered thinking)
Made great advances in logic. He argued
that you could use facts to figure out new
facts.
Aristotle inspired Greek scientists to look
closely at the world we live in.
Mathematics
Euclid - was a mathematician who focused on
geometry
Many of the geometry rules you study in math
comes from him
Hypatia - female who taught mathematics
and astronomy
Medicine
Doctors studied the human body to
understand how it worked.
Hippocrates - wanted to find ways to
cure disease.
Best known for the Hippocratic Oath - how
doctors should behave.
Engineering
Made discoveries that we still use today.
(especially the methods in which we build
large structures)
Archimedes - a scientist who invented the
water screw still used by farmers to bring
water from a lower level to a higher one to
water crops.
Some inventors even came up with
mechanical toys.
Review
What were the two main types of art?
(Describe)
What were the three orders of
architecture?
Who were the three main philosophers?
Who were Euclid and Hypatia?
What discoveries were made in
engineering?
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Greek-Achievements