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Chapter 12
Political Parties
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Chapter Outline and Learning
Objectives
Roots of the Two-Party System
LO 12.1: Trace the evolution of the twoparty system in the United States.
The Organization of American Political
Parties
LO 12.2: Outline the structure of American
political parties at the national, state, and
local levels.
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Chapter Outline and Learning
Objectives
Activities of American Political Parties
LO 12.3: Identify the functions performed
by American political parties.
Party Identification
LO 12.4: Analyze how political socialization
and group affiliations shape party
identification.
Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Longman
Chapter Outline and Learning
Objectives
Minor Parties in the American TwoParty System
LO 12.5: Evaluate the role of minor parties
in the American two-party system.
Toward Reform: Two Parties Endure
LO 12.6: Explain why the two major
American political parties continue to
endure.
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Roots of the Two-Party System
LO 12.1: Trace the evolution of the two-party system in the United
States.
•
The Development of Political Parties,
1800-1824
–
–
–
•
Washington’s warning
Anti-Federalists
• Jefferson
•
Democratic Republicans
Federalists
• Adams
Jacksonian Democracy, 1824-1860
–
–
–
Ends the Era of Good Feelings
1832 National Conventions
The Whig Party
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Roots of the Two-Party System
•
•
•
LO 12.1
The Golden Age, 1860-1932
–
–
–
Lincoln, Republicans
Political Machines
Tammany Hall
–
–
The New Deal
Candidate Centered Politics
–
–
–
Critical Elections
Secular realignments
Shift in the South—the 1990s.
The Modern Era
Citizen Support and Party
Realignment
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LO 12.1
_____________was a democratic political
machine that ran New York City in the 1870s.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Whig
The Donkey
The Elephant
Tammany Hall
The John Birch Society
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LO 12.1
_____________was a democratic political
machine that ran New York City in the 1870s.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Whig
The Donkey
The Elephant
Tammany Hall
The John Birch Society
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The Organization of American Political
Parties
LO 12.2: Outline the structure of American political parties at the
national, state, and local levels.
•
•
•
•
National party
–
–
National chairperson
National committee
–
–
Superdelegates
Large television audiences
–
–
States regulate parties
Smallest unit is the precinct
–
National Federation of Republican Women, the Young
Republicans, Think Tanks (the Heritage Foundation)
National convention
States and localities
Informal groups
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LO 12.2
The American Enterprise Institute is an
example of what?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
A
A
A
A
A
“think tank”
political machine
political action committee
special interest group
non-profit group
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LO 12.2
The American Enterprise Institute is an
example of what?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
A “think tank”
A political machine
A political action committee
A special interest group
A non-profit group
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Activities of American Political Parties
LO 12.3: Identify the functions performed by American political parties.
•
•
Running candidates for office
–
Raising money
• Record numbers
– Mobilizing support and getting-out-the-vote (GOTV)
• Public opinion surveys
• Television ads
• GOTV – Republican voter
vaults, Democratic unions
and interest groups
Formulating and
promoting policy
–
National party platform
• Two-thirds implemented by
winning party
• One-half of the losing party’s platform implemented
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LO 12.3
Activities of American Political Parties
•
•
Organizing government
–
Parties in Congress
• Loyalty
• The party line
• Decentralization
– The presidential party
– Parties in the federal courts
– Parties in state governments
• Influence
Furthering unity, linkage, and accountability
–
Parties link branches of government
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LO 12.3
In the course of the past few decades, party
unity among the Democratic and
Republican parties has __________.
A.
B.
C.
become less unified
stayed the same
become more unified.
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LO 12.3
In the course of the past few decades, party
unity among the Democratic and
Republican parties has __________.
A.
B.
C.
become less unified
stayed the same
become more unified.
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Party Identification
LO 12.4: Analyze how political socialization and group affiliations
shape party identification.
•
•
•
Party identification
Political socialization
–
Early socialization
–
–
–
–
–
Geographic region
Gender
Race and ethnicity
Age
Social and economic
factors
Religion
Marital status
Group affiliations
–
–
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LO 12.4
Conservative voters tend to be what?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Male
White
Wealthy
Religious
Older
All of the above
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LO 12.4
Conservative voters tend to be what?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Male
White
Wealthy
Religious
Older
All of the above
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Minor Parties in the American TwoParty System
LO 12.5: Evaluate the role of minor parties in the American twoparty system.
•
•
Formation and role of
third parties
–
–
–
–
Social issues
Civil rights issues
Trust in government
Effectiveness
–
Proportional
representation
Winner-take-all system
Barriers to third-party
success
–
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LO 12.5
Theodore Roosevelt led the _________ party.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Bull Moose
Tea
Dixiecrat
Green
Libertarian
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LO 12.5
Theodore Roosevelt led the _________ party.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Bull Moose
Tea
Dixiecrat
Green
Libertarian
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Toward Reform: Two Parties Endure
LO 12.6: Explain why the two major American political parties
continue to endure.
Dealignment theory
• Party affiliation
• Issue-oriented politics
• Importance of parties
• Competitiveness
• Historical trends
–
–
–
–
–
Mass political participation
Flexibility and pragmatism
Longevity
Strength
Inevitability
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LO 12.6
What does dealignment theory state?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Both parties are not as “straight” as they used
to be.
If two parties are compared to each other, one
will always have an advantage.
There has been a general decline in party
identification.
A third party always shifts the ideology of one
of the two major parties.
Parties will never stay aligned as long as there
is democracy.
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To Learning Objectives
LO 12.6
What does dealignment theory state?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
Both parties are not as “straight” as they used
to be.
If two parties are compared to each other, one
will always have an advantage.
There has been a general decline in party
identification.
A third party always shifts the ideology of one
of the two major parties.
Parties will never stay aligned as long as there
is democracy.
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Figure 12.1: How has the two-party system
developed?
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Figure 12.2: What does a realignment look
like?
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Figure 12.3: How are political parties
organized?
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Figure 12.4: How much money do parties
raise?
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Figure 12.5: How have party unity scores
changed?
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Table 12.1: What do party platforms say?
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Table 12.2: Who identifies as a Democrat? A
Republican?
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Table 12.3: What are some of America’s
major third parties?
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Chapter 12 - Political Parties