Standards we will cover today:
By PresenterMedia.com
Whose voice guides your
choice?
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Propaganda techniques in the media
How do you decide who is the best candidate…
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or which is the
best toothpaste ?
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Looking for facts to back up your choice is
an excellent idea, but find out who is
presenting those facts.
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Are they facts at all, or is the
advertiser using propaganda
techniques to persuade you?
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What are Propaganda
techniques?
• Propaganda is designed to
persuade.
• Its purpose is to influence your
opinions, emotions, attitudes,
or behavior.
• It seeks to “guide your choice.”
Everywhere you turn, someone is
trying to persuade you.
1
2
3
4
5
Trying to make you buy something
Trying to make you do something
Trying to make you feel something
Trying to make you not do something
Trying to control you
•These are questions you should
ask yourself.
The following slide contains
many examples of how you
are bombarded every day with
persuasive messages.
What are some of the techniques
used to persuade us?
•Bandwagon
•Name-calling
•Testimonial
•Glittering Generality
•Plain-folks appeal
•Transfer
•Emotional (Loaded) words
•Faulty Reasoning or Fallacies
•Fear
Bandwagon
•Everybody is doing this.
•If you want to fit in, you need to “jump on the bandwagon”
and do it too.
•The implication is that you must JOIN in to FIT in.
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For example:
If the whole world uses
this VISA card, you must
need one too.
Bank of the World Visa CardYou can use it from Tennessee to
Timbuktuanywhere you travel in whole wide
world !!
Sign up today at www.bowvisa.com
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Name-calling
•A negative word or feeling is attached to an idea,
product, or person.
• If that word or feeling goes along with that person or
idea, the implication is that we shouldn’t be interested
in it.
For example:
Do we want a mayor who will leave us in debt?
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Spending grew 100%
under Mayor Moneybags!
Testimonial
•A famous person endorses an idea, a product, or a
candidate.
•If someone famous uses this product, believes this
idea, or supports this candidate, so should we.
For example:
If we drink milk we will all
be as famous as Milly the
model.
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Milly the Model
asks, “Got Milk?”
Glittering Generality
•A commonly admired virtue is used to inspire positive
feelings for a person, idea, or product.
•Words like truth, democracy, beauty, and timeless are
examples of those general terms.
For example:
If you want to
be brighter,
you’ll support
Bill Brite.
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Look on the bright
side!
Vote for Bill Brite !
Other examples of glittering generality
.
Open Happiness- Coca
Cola Ad 2011
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bg_zxsxyKyM
Plain-folks appeal
This idea, product, or person is
associated with normal, everyday
people and activities.
For Example:
We want a Jim Smith, a mayor who supports the
regular American worker.
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Vote for Smith
Examples:
President Bill Clinton plays the saxophone.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VTkUeb6z
QFA
President Obama playing
basketball.
Yes, this is testimonial, but
it is also plain folks. He’s
acting like an everyday guy
in his Wrangler jeans.
President George Bush
Sr. goes fishing.
Transfer
•Symbols, quotes, or images of famous people
are used to convey a message or endorse a
product.
•The message may not necessarily be associated
with them. The celebrity may not actually use
the product.
For example:
Joe uses symbols of America to
tie his restaurant to American
values for Independence Day.
Celebrate
the American
Way this 4th
of JulyEat at Joe’s
Joe’s Barbeque
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Emotional (Loaded) words
•Words that are attached to emotional feelings.
They are used to describe a product, person, or
idea, or they are used to persuade people.
•We associate those words and, therefore, those
positive feelings with the product.
For example:
What feelings are
inspired by the words
“true love”? If you wear
this cologne will
someone fall in love with
you?
True Love
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More examples of Loaded Words:
Faulty Reasoning/ Fallacies- false
way of thinking
•Christians believe in God.
•Muslims believe in God.
•Christians are Muslims.
Anyone who knows anything about either religion will know that this is not true. It is
faulty reasoning.
For example:
Does this mean that teachers need
medication to keep their cool during the
school day ?
No, but it implies that teachers need
medication. This is faulty reasoning.
This also implies that all teachers are on
some sort of medication; this is also false.
More teachers
recommend Calmme to help them
make it through the
day
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More fallacies:
•Kimmy is goofy and bubbly.
•Kimmy is a blonde.
•Jane is mean and hateful
•Jane is a redhead.
•Faulty Conclusion: All redheads are mean and all blondes are
sweet and fun.
Appeal to Fear
•Our fears are displayed.
•Ideas, candidates, or
products are shown to put
our fears to rest.
For example:
If you use Safety Ware it
will keep people from
stealing your identity
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Guard against
Identity theft
Use Safety Ware
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnYViin6p0
Life Call Commercial
www.safetyware.com
Personal Attack {ad
hominem}
This technique attacks someone on a personal level
rather than arguing with his or her viewpoint
1.Jimmy makes claim X.
2. Ryan makes an attack on person
Jimmy.
3. Therefore people think Jimmy’s claim is
false.
The attack has nothing to do with the
logical thinking behind Jimmy’s claim, but
because Ryan attacked Jimmy’s character,
people dislike Jimmy.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3C1uJdpSJsY
Attack ad on Herman Cain
False dilemma:
A False Dilemma is a fallacy in which a person uses the following
pattern of "reasoning":
• This is known as the either or fallacy. This is when only two options
are given, both of which are usually two extremes.
•Example: “There are only TWO TYPES of people in this world:
Oakland Patriots and those who want to be an Oakland Patriot.”
Example of a false dilemma:
Jenny is either a democrat or republican.
What if she is neither?
False Analogy
Definition:
This is a comparison between two things that are not
similar enough to be compared.
Examples:
1. Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in
the head in order to make them work, so must
employees. ( It’s a false analogy because you can’t
actually hit your employees in the head and expect them
to do their job).
2. Government is like business, so just as business must be sensitive
primarily to the bottom line, so also must government. (But the
objectives of government and business are completely different, so
probably they will have to meet different criteria.)
Slippery Slope
•The belief that an event will occur
based on other previous events that
have occurred. This is usually an
exaggeration.
Examples of Slippery Slope
1."We have to stop the tuition increase! The next thing you know,
they'll be charging $40,000 a semester!"
2. "You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they'll walk all
over you."
3. "We've got to stop them from banning books in High School
libraries. Once they start banning one form of literature, they will
never stop. Next thing you know, they will be burning all the
books!"
Non sequitur
Foreign Word
When someone says something that has nothing
to do with what was previously stated.
False Authority:
A fallacy when someone attempts to be an expert
when he/she is not, or when people look at someone
as an authority on a subject that he/she is not an
authority on.
An Appeal to Authority is a fallacy with the
following form:
1.Jimmy (claimed to be) an authority on a subject.
2.Jimmy makes a claim about that subject.
3.Therefore, the claim must be true because
Jimmy says he’s an expert.
Can you think of another
example?
Misuse of Statistics
When an author, commercial, or person uses statistical
numbers in an incorrect or untruthful manner. This is
usually done by withholding information.
Examples of Misuse of
statistics on Commercials:
Innocent Mother Sent To Prison over Statistical Error
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7F03Wf3Ivzs
Sprint Commercial
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NlwBO36OeUQ
Snob Appeal
This technique plays on the audience’s desire for the finer things
in life such as expensive cars, jewelry, or designer clothing.
Direct TV Commercial
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rkB9OT2XVvA
Cadillac Commercial
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jkEw1rsBUak
CÎROC Luck Be a Lady Commercial
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nXyrfl3FZg
As we watch this next video clip, make a list of all the types
of persuasion that are used.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ufs__5DjEao&feature=endscreen&NR=1
Phone Around Your Neck - Parody ( A type of satire)
How do we make sure that we are making informed
choices,
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instead of allowing others to sway us in our decision-making?
We make our own choices when …
•we read and listen to reliable sources,
•we watch for combinations of truths and lies,
•we check for hidden messages,
•we watch for use of propaganda techniques,
Writers usually construct
arguments using three
parts:
1. A claim
2. Support
3. A counter argument
Let’s look at these parts
in more detail.
Appeal to Pity
Analogy: Comparing Individuality
to different kinds of music.
Now we are going to watch two short political
ads from 1964
What persuasive devices can you identify?
Ice cream
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UVzZQGWOqA&feature=endscreen&NR=1
Daisy
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDTB
nsqxZ3k
Write down the types of
persuasive devices you
noticed that were used in
these two ads.
Get out a blank sheet of paper.
Write a few paragraphs explaining why you think
President Johnson chose to use the persuasive devices he
used, and explain the effect it might have had on voters.
Make sure you back up your ideas with specific details
from the ads.
Download

Persuasive Devices Power Point