Personal Best
Achieving
your goals
Jessica Pinchbeck and
Caroline Heaney,
Dept. of Childhood, Youth &
Sport, The Open University
1
What is goal setting?
• Most people naturally set themselves goals
or targets to achieve
- I want to pass my course
- I want to lose weight
- New Years resolutions!
• Do these provide direction and
motivation?
• Effective goal setting involves setting the
right goals at the right time
2
Types of Goals
Outcome Goals
Performance
Goals
• Focus on the
end product
• Focus on end
product
• Externally
referenced
• Self
referenced
• Example: To
win a medal at
the Olympic
Games
• Example:
passing
driving test
Process Goals
• Focus on the
actions
required to
achieve end
product
• Example: to
use a stress
reduction
technique
before an
exam
3
Short and Long term Goals
• Both long and short term
goals should be set
• Research demonstrates both
are important
• Focusing only on long term
goals does not improve
performance
• Typically a progression of
short term goals lead to the
long term goal
Long term goal
4
Does goal setting work?
• Yes!
• Researchers found the following factors most
consistently enhance the effectiveness of
goal setting in sport and exercise
environments
-
Goals of moderate difficulty
Both short and long term goals
Presence of feedback on progress towards goal
Specificity of goals
Public acknowledgement of goals
Commitment to goal attainment
Participant's input in the goal setting process
Using combination of different goals
5
Why does goal setting work?
• Indirect thought
process view
- Goals influence
behaviour indirectly
by affecting
important
psychological factors
such as anxiety and
confidence
• Direct mechanistic
view
-
Goals direct attention
Mobilise effort
Increase persistence
Encourage strategy
development
(Locke and Latham, 1985)
6
How to set effective goals
•
•
•
•
•
•
Specific
Measurable
Action orientated
Realistic
Timely
Self determined
(Smith, 1994)
7
Common problems in goal
setting
•
•
•
•
•
Failing to set specific goals
Setting too many goals
Failing to adjust goals
Not considering individual differences
Not evaluating goals
• These can all be prevented or minimised by
following the SMARTS technique.
8
Dealing with setbacks
• Life can often be like a game of snakes and
ladders!
9
Now it’s your turn to
set some goals!
10
Stage 1 of goal setting:
Self-awareness
Before you can set yourself goals you need to
develop your self-awareness.
QUESTIONS TO ASK:
• How can I become a better XXXXX?
• Am I aware of my strengths & weaknesses?
• Am I reminding myself of my strengths?
• Am I doing anything to strengthen my
weaknesses?
Performance profiling can help
11
Goal Setting Task
1. Self-Awareness: Complete the
performance profiling sheet
– What do you need to improve?
2. Set yourself some appropriate goals –
What are you going to achieve? How?
When?
3. Potential barriers & strategies – What
might obstruct you? How can you overcome
potential barriers?
12
Any questions?
13
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