Chapter 16
Consultation and Collaboration
YOU MUST BE THE CHANGE
YOU WISH TO SEE IN THE
WORLD.
MAHATMA GANDHI
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Consultation
 A process in which the counselor works with
(parent, teacher, administrator) with the goal of
positive change in the child
 Voluntary problem-solving process with goals of
enhanced services and improved functioning
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Model
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Individual Consultation
Consultant
Consultee
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Client
Individual Consultation
Consultant
Consultee
Consultant
Consultee
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Client
Group Consultation
Client
Consultant
Consultee
Client
Client
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Mental Health Consultation
 Client-centered case consultation
 Usually type of individual consultation with focus on client’s
skill deficits.
 Consultee-centered case consultation
 Usually type of individual consultation with focus on
consultee’s skill deficits.
 Program-centered administrative consultation
 Usually type of group consultation with focus on
client/group’s skill deficits.
 Consultee-centered administrative consultation
 Usually type of group consultation with focus on consultee’s
skill deficits.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Consultation with Children
Typical tasks involve the following:
professional
development workshops
assisting teachers
providing resources
interpreting information
consult with other specialists
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Mental Health Consultation
 Focus on primary prevention and
helping professionals as well as
others
 Interaction between 2 professionals
 Consultant an expert, diagnoses a
problem and provides a solution
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Process Consultation
 A skill, interest in how things happen rather
than what is done
 Set of activities to help the consultee perceive,
understand, and act upon events within one’s
environment
 focus on how problems are solved and the
system in which they occur
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Process Consultation
Consultant and consultee examine six areas:
 Communication patterns
 Group member roles
 Group problem solving and decision making
 Group norms and growth
 Leadership and authority
 Intergroup cooperation and competition
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Behavioral Consultation
More structured model; application of systems
theory and principles of learning to a problemsolving process:
 Problem
identification and analysis
 Selection of target behavior
 Behavioral objectives
 Plan, design, implementation
 Evaluate of behavioral change program
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Cross-Cultural Consultation
Ingraham (2000) suggests
Support
consultee success
Value multiple perspectives
Create emotional safety and support
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Cross-cultural Consultation
 Brown, Pryzwansky and Schulte provide questions to assess
 Hierarchy
Who
is in charge? How formal do I be?
 Who should be involved
What family should be here? …school
personnel?
 What leads to use
How do I get them to open up and talk?
 Allowing the right not to participate
How do I make them feel comfortable and not
forced?
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
The Consulting Process
1. Pre-entry
Look at oneself to see if you are right for
the task and services to be provided
2. Entry, problem exploration and
contracting
learn about needs, presenting problem,
people involved, previous interventions,
and expectations of seeker
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
The Consulting Process (Cont.)
3. Diagnosis stage
Information gathering, problem
confirmation, goal setting, and potential
interventions
4. Solution searching and intervention
selection
avoid favorite paradigm
consider human and structural factors
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
The Consulting Process (Cont.)
5. Evaluation
 Ensures professional effectiveness
 Were goals achieved?
 Did interventions work?
6. Termination
 Describe what was and was not successful
 Look for areas of improvement
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Myrick’s approach
1. Identify the problem clearly.
2. Clarify the situation.
3. Determine the desired outcome.
4. Gather any needed information.
5. Develop a plan of action.
6. Evaluate and revise as needed.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
General Problem Solving Model
Stop and Think
Stop
Think
Choose
Do
Evaluate
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Consultation Interventions
 Role Shift
 Teaching
consultee to changing one’s own
behavior to elicit behavior change in another
person
 Identify what behavior that consultee is doing to
encourage negative response from client.
 Logical Consequences
 experience natural consequence rather than
punishment
 teach rules of society
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Consultation Interventions
 Listing of Behaviors
 Can
determine a baseline.
 Happening an inappropriate amount of times?
 Isolation Techniques
 unacceptable behavior =removal from group
 quiet place, but not out of sight
 if worse, time out room
 in extreme situations, they will be removed from
the location all together (suspension, etc.)
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Collaboration
Friend and Cook (2000) definition
A style for direct interaction between 2 co-equal
parties voluntarily engaged in shared decisions
making process as they work towards a common
goal.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Collaboration
collaborator
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
collaborator
Client
Collaboration
Five stages of problem solving for collaborative
consultation:
1. Coming together
2. Defining a shared vision
3. Developing a plan
4. Taking action
5. Evaluating progress
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Guidelines on whether to use
collaboration or consultation
 Determine how the two services are viewed by the
consumer
 Counselor should reflect on their personal
reactions to the two services and comfort with each
 Collaboration may be method if parameters of
consultation impossible
 Fundamental to choice is nature of problem, the
context in which it occurs and the skills of
everyone involved.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Reasons for Collaboration
Collaborative efforts may involve nurturing
relationships to:
increase
resources
enhance effectiveness
decrease fragmentation
cost efficiency
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Teaming
 Specialized work purpose
 Have shared goals and are interdependent
 Each team member is aware of the focus, the
responsibilities and the plan for accomplishing
the task
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Assessment as an Intervention
 Counselors often use a variety of tools to help
understand children
 Some of the more commonly used assessment tools
are interviews, case histories and behavioral
observations
 Sattler has a great list of interviewing techniques.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Mental Status Exam
Observations include:
General appearance, behavior,
attitude
2. Speech characteristics and thought
process
3. Emotional status and reactions
4. Content of thought
1.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Mental Status Exam (Cont.)
Observations include:
5. Orientation and awareness
6. Memory
7. General intellectual functioning
8. Insight
9. MSE Summary
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Formal Tests
Intelligence Tests
Projective Techniques
Achievement Tests
Aptitude Tests
Other tests, surveys, or scales
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Class Project:
Consultation
DEMONSTRATION
ROLE PLAY
APPLICATION
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
What does it look like…
 Roles
 School Psychologist (consultant)
 Parent
 Client
 Younger Child
 Identified problem
 Teacher/ Child Conflict
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Let me try…
 Roles
 Teacher
 Parent
 Counselor or School Psychologist (consultant)
 Client
 7-year-old
 Male
 Middle –class, English speaking
 Identified problem
 Is being bullied by several children
 No physical harm; only emotional harm
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
In the real world…
 Roles
 Your team (multiple consultants)
 Client
 Inner-city, alternative, high school
 Identified problem
 School is finding a recent increase in teen pregnancy by 50%
from last year.
Copyright 2011 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson
Learning
Download

Consultation and Collaboration