• Definition
Two or more individuals,
interacting and
interdependent, who come
together to achieve
particular objectives.
Formal and informal groups
(1). Formal groups
……..are those defined by
organizational structure with designated work
assignments and establishing tasks.
• For example
the six members making up an
airline flight crew are a formal group.
Formal and informal groups
(2). Informal groups
…….are those neither formally
structured nor organizationally determined. These
groups are natural formations in the work
environment that appear in response to the need
for social contact.
For example
Three employees from different
departments who regularly eat
their lunch together is an
informal group.
Classifying Groups
Command Groups
Task Groups
Interest Groups
Friendship Groups
Prentice Hall, 2001
Four Types of Groups
• Command group.
– determined by the organization
chart. It is composed of individuals who directly
report to a given manager. An elementary school
principal and her 18 teachers form a command
group. or the area sales manager along with his
sales force.
Four Types of Groups
• Task group
– it is also organizationally determined
represent those working together to complete a job
task, however a task group’s boundaries are not
limited to its immediate hierarchical superior. For
instance the hiring of new employees can be a task
which can involve GM, HR manager and a particular
functional manager.
Four Types of Groups
• Interest group
are such groups that affiliate to attain a
specific objective of shared interest. for example
employees who come together to have their
vacations schedules altered, to support a colleague
who has been fired or to seek improvement in
working conditions is an interest group.
Four Types of Groups
• Friendship group
– members have one or more
common characteristics. for example similar age
or holding similar political views
Why People Join Groups
Stages of Group Development
Stage II
Stage I
Stage III
Stage IV
Stage V
Stages of Group Development
Groups generally pass through this sequence, the five stage
model of group. Forming, storming, Norming performing
and adjourning.
The first stage forming
is characterized by a great deal of
uncertainty about the group purpose, structure and
leadership. members are uncertain about what type of
behavior is acceptable. This stage is complete when
members have begun to think themselves as part of a group.
Stages of Group Development
2.The storming stage
is one of the intra group conflict. members accept the
existence of the group, but there is a resistance to the
constraints that the group imposes on individuals.
• Furthermore there is conflict over who will control the
group. When this stage is complete, there will be a
relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
Stages of Group Development
3.The Norming stage
The Norming stage completes
when close relationships have been developed and the
group demonstrates cooperation.
• Cooperation further develops common set of
expectations from the group members which defines
their behavior.
Stages of Group Development
• The fourth stage is performing.
The group structure becomes fully functional and group
energy moves from getting to know and understand each
other to performing a task at hand.
• For permanent work groups performing is the last stage of
their development, however for temporary committees,
task forces or other similar groups that have a limited task
to perform, there is an
adjourning stage.
Stages of Group Development
5. Adjourning stage.
In this stage the group prepares for
its disbandment, where high task performance is
no longer the group’s priority, instead attention is
directed toward wrapping up activities.
Prentice Hall, 2001
According to Shakespeare all the world is a stage and
all the men and women are players. similarly all the
group members are actors.
Role is defined as……
to engage in a set of
expected behavior that
are related to occupying
a given position in a social
Role identity
• Role Identity – the ability to recognize attitudes
and behaviors consistent with a role.
• When workers are promoted
to supervisory positions vital
changes are observed in their
behavior with other workers.
Role perception and role expectation
• Role Perception –
our view of how we’re supposed to
act in a given situation is called role perception.
Role perception and role expectation
• Role Expectations –
how others believe
you should act in a
given situation is
called role expectation.
Role conflict
• Role conflict is that situation when there is much
difference in role perception and role expectation.
• That is, people expect an individual to behave in
one way and the individual perceives to behave in
another way.
• The degree to which
members of the group
are attracted to each
other and motivated to
stay in the group
Related to the group’s
Group Decision Making
More Diversity of Views
Dominant Individuals
Increased information
Unclear Responsibility
Higher-quality decisions
Time and money costs
Improved Commitment
Conformity pressures
Hall, 2001
Group Decision Making
Prentice Hall, 2000
Group shift
Symptoms of Groupthink
Group members when making any decision, ask for the
agreement of all group members.
• Some individuals in the group, who have a difference of
opinion, remain silent. They keep quiet in order to avoid
any conflict among group members.
• Their silence is considered as yes, although their silence is
meant as NO.
• In groupthink sometimes minority
becomes victim of majority in
decision making.
Group shift
When a manager makes any decision individually, then he is very
careful and avoids all risks, because in case of failure he will be solely
responsible for his decision.
• But when the same manager is the member of some group, then he
is making more risky decisions.
• The reason is that in case of failure no single individual could be
made responsible in group decision making.
• Thus in group decision making the position of a manager shifts from
normal decisions to more risky decisions, called group shift