Nuclear North Korea
What is the potential harm of North Korea’s
possession of nuclear weapons?
Power of Nuclear Weapons
 Most feared weapon of
mass destruction.
 Causes instantaneous
devastation.
 Effects of radiation after
bombing.
 Cold War sparked a
nuclear arms race
between the United
States and the Soviet
Union.
United Nations, 1957
 Encouraged “peaceful development of nuclear power”
 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
 Began inspections of countries looking for harmful nuclear power
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT),
1968
 Goal is to limit the spread of nuclear weapons.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Signees of the treaty do not have nuclear weapons and
agree not to acquire them.
Those with nuclear weapons agree not to sell or trade
them.
Freeze all future development
Encourage participating countries to disarm.
Provide guidelines and peaceful cooperation for the use
of nuclear energy.
PROBLEM: POLICY IS INCONSISTENT!
Agreed Framework, 1994
 The objective of the agreement was for North Korea to stop using their nuclear
power plant program and replace it with light water reactors which the United
States viewed as less dangerous. We even said we would build them by 2003.
 This would allow for the United States and North Korea to work towards a
better relationship.
 The IAEA would be allowed to monitor these plants.
Problems concerning the Agreed Framework:
1. In 1999 the United States said they would not be built until
2007 or 2008.
2. North Korea threatened to resume its program if the 1994
agreement was not met.
6 Party Talks, December 2002
 Negotiations about North Korea’s nuclear program.
 Goal is to disarm North Korea.
 Six participating countries:
 North Korea
 South Korea
 China
 United States
 Russia
 Japan
North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Program















Early 90’s: Began nuclear program
1994: Agreed Framework (give up nukes for aid)
Jan. 2002: Axis of Evil Speech by Pres. Bush
Fall 2002: NK admitted they were working on their program for years
Dec. 2002: Six Party Talks began
Feb 2005: Admitted they had nuclear weapons and would no longer take part
in the talks.
October 2006: series of missile tests and its first nuclear test
2007: 6 party talks resumed in Beijing.
March 2007: NK tests missiles; US suspends aid to NK
2008:Talks break down and tensions increased between NK and the US & SK
April 2009: NK launched a satellite w/long range missile
May 2009: NK conducts second nuclear test underground.
Jan 2010: NK shows willingness to resume 6-party talks and end its nuclear
program for better relations with the US
December 2012: Launches a “satellite” into orbit
February 2013: NK conducts its third and largest nuclear test
Why is a nuclear North Korea concerning?
 North and South Korea are
technically still at war.
 A nuclear North Korea could
trigger an East Asian arms race.
 North Korea could sell its
weapons to terrorists.
 North Korea is unpredictable –
unsure of how it could use its
weapons.
Kim Jong-Il Out – Kim Jong-un In
 August 2012:
Kim Jong-un agreed with the
U.S. to suspend major
elements of its atomic
weapons program in exchange
for food
 “Modest first step in the right
direction” – Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton
 December 2012:
Launches a “satellite” into
orbit
 February 2013:
NK conducts its third and
largest nuclear test
South Korea - Concerns
 6th largest military in the
world
 One of the “4 Asian Tigers”
(S.K., Taiwan, Hong Kong
& Singapore)
 13th largest economy in the
world
 If attacked by North
Korea, would they lose
everything they have?
Park Geun-hye
President of South Korea
South Korea elected its first female
president in December 2012