World Geography Today
East Africa
Preview
Section 1: Natural Environments
Section 2: History and Culture
Section 3: The Region Today
Chapter Wrap-Up
Chapter 23
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 1: Natural Environments
Read to Discover
• What landforms, rivers, and lakes are found in
East Africa, and what physical processes have
shaped the land?
• Why does East Africa have a variety of climates
and biomes, and on what natural resources does
the region depend?
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 1: Natural Environments
Question
What landforms, rivers, and lakes
are found in East Africa?
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 1: Natural Environments
Lakes
Rivers
• Lake Victoria
• Lake Albert
• Lake Tanganyika
• Lake Turkana
• Lake Malawi
• Blue Nile (flows from
Ethiopian highlands)
• White Nile (flows from
Lake Victoria)
• Nile (combined flows of
Blue Nile and White Nile)
Landforms
• Western and Eastern
Rift Valleys (tectonic)
• Kilimanjaro (volcanic)
• Ethiopian highlands
(volcanic)
• Sudd (water from
White Nile)
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 1: Natural Environments
Climates, Biomes, and Resources
• Latitude and elevation influence climate along the equator;
highland elevations produce cooler climates, more rainfall, and
thicker forests.
• Farther north and south, seasonal droughts are common;
vegetation is limited and animal life threatened.
• Tsetse fly permits survival of native animal species by making
livestock raising difficult.
• Resources are limited (some oil, gems, gold); most important are
rich highland soils (for farming) and scenic beauty (for tourism).
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 2: History and Culture
Read to Discover
• What were some important developments in East
Africa’s early history?
• How did European exploration and colonization
affect the region?
• What are the peoples and cultures of East Africa
like today?
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 2: History and Culture
Question
Who are the important peoples in East
Africa’s early history?
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 2: History and Culture
Early History of East Africa
Earliest
Peoples
• No written
histories
• Oral tradition
Kush
Aksum
Arabs
• Controlled
much of the Nile
• Capital at
Meroë, world’s
largest cluster
of pyramids
• Conquered the
Kush by 350
• Controlled
western Arabia
• Adopted
Christianity
• Sailed along
coast,
established
ports for trade
• Swahili
language
developed
from trade
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 2: History and Culture
European Influence
• 1500s—First Portuguese trading ports established
• Mid-1800s—Explorers, missionaries, and traders moved
inland
• Late 1800s—Europeans grabbed colonies, drew arbitrary
borders
• Colonial rule—Export economies (plantations, mines);
building of modern cities
• Independence—Leaders of new nations were often Europeaneducated
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 2: History and Culture
Peoples and Cultures
• Several hundred ethnic groups
• Three language families—Nilotic, Cushitic, Bantu
• Arabic and South Asian peoples on the coast
• Importance of religion and family—Animist faiths,
Christianity, Islam
• Foods—Boiled sorghum, sour milk, roast beef and
lamb, Western foods, injera bread
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 3: The Region Today
Read to Discover
• What roles do agriculture, industry, trade, and
tourism play in the economies of East Africa?
• What are the region’s cities like?
• What issues and challenges do East Africans
face?
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 3: The Region Today
East African Economies
• Farming (usually small-scale subsistence)—Beans, corn, rice,
sorghum, wheat, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, tea, cloves, coconuts
• Herding—Cattle, goats, sheep
• Gathering wild plant products—Coffee beans and gum arabic
• Raw material exports
• Manufacturing—basic consumer goods, foods, and building materials
• Tourism—Great potential; animals, scenery, events draw tourists;
provides jobs and market for arts and crafts; need to reduce political
violence and preserve the environment
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 3: The Region Today
Question
What are the region’s largest cities?
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 3: The Region Today
City
Description
Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia
Largest city and capital of Ethiopia,
headquarters of regional organizations
Nairobi, Kenya
Region’s most important commercial center
Dar es Salaam,
Tanzania
Vital seaport, transportation hub
Khartoum and
Omdurman, Sudan
Largest cities in Sudan, face each other
across Nile
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Section 3: The Region Today
Issues and Challenges
• Population growth—Contributes to many problems
• Ethnic conflicts—Often over land and access to aid and
jobs
• Building stable governments
• Promoting economic progress
• Protecting the environment
• Providing for health and education
World Geography Today
Chapter 23
Chapter Wrap-Up Understanding the Main Ideas
1. How does elevation affect climate in East Africa?
2. What are two ways that Arab traders influenced
East African languages and religion?
3. How have other cultures changed the traditional
religions and diet of East Africa?
4. What activities form the basis of the region’s
economy?
5. Why does tourism hold great economic potential for
the region?
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World Geography Today Chapter 23