Michael Doyle
Lecture 3
Kaisa Ellandi
Key points in liberalism
Human kind is rational:
◦ In institutional terms- ability to pursue ones
◦ Ability to understand moral principles and live
according to the law
Most important thing is liberty, human
Key points in liberalism
There can be conflict, but harmony is also
possible. Positive change is possible
 Cooperation is in human relations as well
as international relations
 No central power
 Governments are necessary
 Immanuel Kant – early liberal philosopher
Peace and Security
Human kind understands legal norms,
moral principles.
 Liberalist are not pacifists - states have to
defend themselves against hostile
 League of Nations – to secure peace and
security. An liberalist thought.
◦ Collective security
United Nations
Peace and Security
Peace theory
◦ people have no interest in war.
◦ tyranny must be put to an end
◦ liberal democracy
Michael Doyle – democratic peace theory
◦ The more states are democratic, the more
they are peaceful
◦ Zone of peace
Peace and Security
Harmony of Interest – between states
and people for mutual interests and
mutual benefits
State and Power
State is
◦ sovereign,
◦ autonomous
◦ has it’s territory
◦ people
◦ government
State is a „necessary evil“ for citizens to go about
one’s everyday business
Pluralism – distribution of political power through
several institutions, none of which are sovereign
State and power
States do not reflect the interests of
one/elite group.
 State is autonomous body
 State is fair and impartial, neutral arbiter
 Distinction between state and civil society
 Civil Society and the state interact
State and power
State is not the only actor
 State can give some elements to other
 NGO-s, multinational corporations,
 Power is distributed.
 People can collectively influence
 Power is to act collectively for „common
Institutions and world order
Institutions are linked with each other
 Governments are linked with each other
 Societies are linked with each other
 Stated cooperate more extensively as
before: in order to fulfill the needs of
their citizens
Institutions and world order
In some cases states have to give up their
sovereignty: to UN , EU
 Over the past century- new institutions
treaties, regimes.
 Governance - collective processes of
rule-making, monitoring, implementation
 Governance includes both informal and
formal organizations at national and
international level
 Richard Falk – „Humane Governance“
Inequality and justice
Human, civil and political rights is very
important to liberals
UN charter
Many states have refused to ratify conventions
and treaties
Right-leaning liberals: right of each individual
treatment, equally in the eyes of the law
Left-leaning liberals: more state intervention in
the interests of addressing social inequality and
to genuine equal opportunities
Identity and community
Community for protecting their
independence or setting our their rights
 Community of human kind) (boundaries
of state, nation, race, ethnicity, culture,
class and gender)
 Global Society – normative consensus.
Bonding people together, universal rights,
people of the world
Identity and community
Transnationalism – people engage in
numerous social interaction which tie
people together across state boundaries
Conflict and violence
War can be avoided
 Peace is possible in cooperation with
states and institutions
 Institutions play a central role in
mediating and resolving peace