American Growth and Nationalism
SSUSH6: The student will analyze the impact of territorial
expansion and population growth and the impact of this growth in
the early decades of the new nation.
Westward Expansion
• Northwest Ordinance- created the western territory
(North of Ohio R., East of Miss. R.)
• 5,000 people- could elect legislature
• 60,000 people- could apply for statehood
• Slavery was not allowed – this would lead to just slavery in
the South
• Created 5 states: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and
Wisconsin.
• Many Americans moved to the area between the
App. Mts. and the Mississippi R. because of
abundant land and fertile soil
• The increase of white settlers led to tension with Native
Americans.
Main Ideas of Thomas Jefferson’s
Presidency
1. Informal style for the
presidency
2. More power for Supreme Court
3. Expand west so more people
could own land
4. Keep U.S. out of war between
Britain and France
Informal style of Jefferson’s presidency
• He felt like Washington & Adams
acted too much like royalty
1.Instead of overturning all of the
Federalists policies, Jefferson sought
to integrate them with his own
Democratic-Republican ideas
2.A strong believer in small
government, Jefferson hoped to limit
federal power
Jefferson gave more power to the Supreme
Court
3. Marbury v. Madison decision
strengthened the Supreme Court because it
a gave the Supreme Court the right of
judicial review
Louisiana Purchase
4. In 1803 Napoleon offered to sell all
of the Louisiana Territory, as well as
New Orleans, to the United States
5. “Corps of Discovery” (Lewis and
Clark Expedition) not only increased
American knowledge of the Louisiana
Territory, it also gave the United States
claim to the Oregon territory along the
west coast
Lewis and Clark Expedition
• Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
• Secret expedition to find a route to the
Pacific Ocean
• Sacagawea – Shoshone Native
American women – served as guide
and interpreter
• Greatly increased knowledge on the
plants, animals, and geography of the
new territory
The Decision for the War of 1812
Impressment
British ships were stopping American ships and forcing our
sailors into their navy (AKA shanghai)
War
Hawks
South and West- supported war (War Hawks) because trade
restrictions had hurt farmers and blamed British for the
clashes with Native Americans.
Trade
Problems
Both France and Great Britain had been disrupting trade
between themselves, America would get caught in the middle.
Great Britain’s trade restrictions on the U.S. would eventually
lead to war
War
declaration
June 1812- Madison asked Congress to declare war. South &
West voted for war. Northeast against war.
Important Battles and the War Ends
Raids on D.C.
& Baltimore
British seized the capital and burned it and the
White House. Next attack on Baltimore unsuccessful
(Ft. McHenry- Francis Scott Key’s Star Spangled
Banner).
Battle of New Gen. Andrew Jackson used cotton bales to absorb
Orleans
bullets. The American victory made Jackson a hero
& destroyed the Federalists. Nationalism was
strong. Battle took place 2 weeks after the war
ended
Treaty of
Ghent
December 24, 1814- Treaty of Ghent ended war &
restored prewar boundaries. No territory changed
hands.
Result of war The war increased American prestige overseas and
created a new feeling of patriotism and national
unity.
Judicial Nationalism
1816-1824: Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in cases that
established power of the federal government over the states.
Marbury v.
Madison
Declared congressional act unconstitutional;
created power of judicial review
Nationalistic actions against Spain
Invasion of Florida
1.
Spanish-held Florida angered Southerners becausea.
b.
2.
3.
Runaway slaves fled there
Seminoles used Florida as a base to raid Georgia.
1818- General Andrew Jackson seized Spanish
settlements & removed the governor
Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 - Spain ceded Florida to the
U.S. The treaty also created the border between U.S.
and Spain territory out west
Changes In Transportation
and the Nations Infrastructure
Steam Power
*1807- Robert Fulton’s
Clermont steams
up the Hudson River
•Steamships helps
farmers ships their goods
Canals
*Erie Canal connects
Lake Erie to New York City
*By 1840 3,000 miles of
canals are in use
Changes
In
Transportation
Roads
*By 1833, the Cumberland Rd
runs from Maryland to Ohio
*New roads of stone & gravel
help Americans move
West
Railroads
*In 1828 the B & O line
becomes the Nation’s first
railroad
*By 1840 US has more RR
than any other place in the
world
Robert Fulton’s
Clermont
The Erie Canal
The Erie Canal
• 1825- was the example of changes in
transportation
• Society and economic changes took place
• Connected Lake Erie to New York’s Hudson
River
• The Erie Canal was the first transportation
faster any other form at the time. Connected
the eastern seaboard to the new western
territory which was then wilderness.
• New York had a massive population surge,
and became an economic center
President James Monroe
The Era of Good Feelings
• After the War of 1812, Americans had
a sense of national pride. Americans
felt more loyalty toward the United
States than toward their state or
region. The presidency of James
Monroe is described as the Era of
Good Feelings.
The Monroe Doctrine
• Many Spanish colonies were revolting
against Spanish Colonialism
• The US was for the revolts – why?
• TRADE was more favorable to the US with the
independent countries
• Other European countries might try to
colonize the Western Hemisphere (The
Americas)
• President would create the Monroe Doctrine
(policy) to stop future European influence in
the Americas- even though we had no power
to implement the policy or back it up
The Monroe Doctrine
1. U.S. would stay out of European
affairs and Europe should stay out of
Western Hemisphere
2. No more colonization of the West – if
you are already here it is OK but you
can not create anymore colonizes
3. An attack against a country in the
West is an attack against the U.S.
4. The U.S. would remain neutral
concerning European Affairs