Scientific Method December 2011 Bell Work • 1. What are the 5 steps of the scientific method process? • 2. What is an independent variable? • 3. What is a dependent variable? Scientific Method Scientific MethodA series of steps that scientists and 7th graders use to answer questions and solve problems The scientific method is a logical, problem solving technique Steps of the Scientific Method 1. Make an Observation/Ask a question 2. Write a Hypothesis 3. Make Predictions 4. Perform Experiments / Data Collection 5. Conclusion Statement Observation 1st Step in the Scientific Method Process • 1. An observation is something you can see or prove • 2. An inference is an opinion, or conclusion, based on observed facts Observation vs. Inference Observation Observation Inference Observation vs. Inference 1. Observation 2. Observation 3. Inference Observation vs. Inference 1. Observation 2. Observation 3. Inference Write a Hypothesis 2nd Step in the Scientific Method Process • Hypothesis- Possible explanation or answer to a question “What do you think is the answer to your question or the reason for your observation” 3rd Step in the Scientific Method Process Make Predictions • Prediction – Statement of what may happen in the future “What are some if / then statements that explain and confirm your hypothesis” Predictions If the cows are warned a car is coming, then they will stop talking and act like cows. Predictions If………………… then……….. Predictions If………………… then………………… Perform Tests or Experiments 4th Step in the Scientific Method Process “What will you do to test your predictions?” -1. Collect Data -2. Find out if your hypothesis is or is not correct. State Your Conclusions 5th Step in the Scientific Method Process • 1. “What did your experiment show?” • 2. “Did your experiment confirm (prove right) your hypothesis?” • 3. Application “How does this apply to everyday life?” Science Vocabulary 1. Bias– To influence in an unfair way – 2. Analyze- -Consider the detail and subject in order to discover the meaning. To look at the results and find meaning. 3. qualitative-observations made with your senses and not numbers 4. quantitative- observations that include amount or numbers Note Cards • 1. Make note cards (study cards) • 5 steps of Scientific Method • Bias • Analyze Independent, Dependent, and Controlled Variables • 1. Independent, dependent, and controlled variables are tools used in an experiment to track what is going on • 2. Allow you to have control over your experiments • 3. Allows you to measure your results and draw accurate conclusions Independent Variable 1. What you change or control in an experiment -You can only have one independent variable Dependent Variable - 1. What you measure in an experiment - 2. You can have more than one dependent variable Controlled Variables 1. Any other conditions in an experiment 2. Must remain constant or the same Control Group • A group in an experiment that is not tested or effected Examples • Fast-food experiment • Plant Scientific Method Review Song 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ask a Question or Make an Observation Write a Hypothesis Make Predictions Perform Experiments/Tests-Collect Data State Your Conclusions Jamal’s Results Concrete (distance) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Average Distance Asphalt (distance) Practice • The Jones put a real Christmas tree up in their home each year. This year they don’t know what species of tree to buy because they want a tree that smells good, keeps it’s needles and stays fresh the longest. They go to the local Christmas tree farm to cut down their tree. The Christmas tree farm has performed their own trial this year, and a month ago cut a blue spruce, Douglas fir, and white pine and placed them in water and displayed them outside the store. This allowed customers to view the trees, feel the needles, and see how the different coniferous trees held their needles and smelled. 1. What is the independent variable? 2. What are the dependent variables? 3. List some controls the Christmas tree farm would need to do in order for their results to be more valid. 4. What could the farm have down differently to increase the “validity” of their experiment. Bell Work True or False 1.Independent variables affect dependent variables. 2.The experimental group is the group that is tested during an experiment. 3. Name the 5 steps in order Bell Work 1. Which variable remains constant? 2. Which variable do you measure and have no control over? 3. Which variable to your control? Bell Work • True or False 1. To analyze means to consider the detail and subject in order to discover the meaning. 2. It is okay to have bias when performing scientific experiments. 3. The experimental group is the one being tested in an experiment. 4. The control group is used to compare results to the experimental group in an experiment.