The Beginnings of a Global Age Europe and the Americas from 1492-1750: How did European Colonization of the Americas shape global economies and societies? First Encounters West Indies – Columbus encountered the Taino people – Friendly toward Spanish – Spanish treated them badly (assault, claimed land, killed resistance, demanded gold) Conquistadors (conquerors) – Arrived in Haiti, Cuba, and the DR – Seized gold, forced conversion to Christianity Spanish Conquistadors Guns, Horses and Disease – Only 100’s of conquistadors versus millions of natives…but they had the advantage Superior guns/cannons to native arrows/spears Horses (natives had never seen horses) – Carry supplies, useful in battle, scary to natives Smallpox, Measles, Influenza – Native Americans had no immunity – Spread rapidly and wiped out entire villages – Native American population of the Carribbean Islands declined by 90% in the 1500’s!!!! – Millions more would die as Europeans made their way inland Cortez Conquers Mexico Hernan Cortez landed on Mexican coast in 1519 – Went to Tenochtitlan, the Aztec Empire’s capitol. Aztecs – Aztecs had gained power and built their empire by conquering others and sacrificing captives to the Aztec gods. The Takeover: Aztec Empire – Moctezuma, the Aztec Emperor, welcomes Cortez and sends religious gifts of gold, silver, turquoise and feathers. – Cortez persuades Moctezuma to sign over the land and treasure by forming alliances with the people that the Aztecs had conquered. – MORE Spanish conquistadors land on the coast and challenge Cortez! Aztecs drive Spanish out due to the confusion – Cortez retreats, plans assault. – Smallpox has begun to spread. In 1521, Cortez attacks and demolishes Tenochtitlan. Tenochtitlan is the cite of modern day Mexico City, built by the Spanish on the ruins. Pizarro take Peru Francisco Pizarro was inspired by Cortez’s success – Arrived in Peru in 1532 – Atahualpa had just won the throne of the Incan Empire after a bloody civil war. The Takeover: Incan Empire – Atahualpa refused to convert to Christianity or be ruled by the Spanish. – Pizarro captured and killed the ruler and slaughtered thousands of Incans. – Pizarro and Spanish forces took over the Incan empire (Peru, Ecuador and Chile) Superior weapons, disease Effects of the Spanish Conquistadors A few hundred European Soldiers conquered millions of Native Americans (note: not Native NORTH Americans) in only a few decades. Spanish: – Seized valuable goods – Used N.A. labor to mine silver – Spain became Europe’s greatest power Natives: – Tens of thousands died – Many converted to Christianity hoping suffering would end – Maya kept fighting the Spanish, revolts among Inca, passive resistance through promoting native culture Colonies! What next? Settlers and missionaries followed the conquistadors—established colonies. New culture emerges: – Reflected European, Native American, and African tradition Ruling the New Spanish Empire By mid-1500, Spain claimed an empire stretching from California to South America. Governing: – Viceroys—representatives to rule in the king’s name in each of the four new provinces. – Council of the Indies—passed laws for the colonies Ruling the Empire (continued) Catholic Church converted natives to Christianity Controlled Economic Activity (Trade) – Silver and gold – Sugar cane Encomienda—a system of forced labor – Natives forced to work mines and plantations – Brutality caused drastic declines in population – Workers brought from Africa to fill shortages (slaves!) Colonial Society and Culture Mixing diverse people gave rise to a new social structure – Blending traditions – Europeans learned: Native architecture, ate native foods, traveled in Indian-style canoes, new artistic styles – Natives learned: New religion, new animal like the horse – Africans contributed: Farming methods, cooking styles, new crops, drama dance and songs for Christian services Society Continued Social Classes: Peninsulars (people born in spain) Filled highest level of gov’t Creoles (American-born descendants of Spanish Settlers) Owned most of the plantations, ranches and mines Mixed Populations: Mestizos (mix of Native and European) Mulattoes (mix of African and European) Native Americans & Africans Beyond the Spanish Empire Treaty of Torsedillas (1494) – Portugal claimed Brazil Tupian Indians – Native Americans who lived in Brazil – Wiped out by disease Portuguese Colonies began in 1530s – – – – – – – Grants of land given to nobles if they shared wealth with king Exported brazilwood (dye) -- very profitable (No gold or silver mining!) Raising cattle Plantation agriculture Slaves used to clear land (Native and African) New culture blending Euro, Native and African elements English, French & Dutch Challenge Other Euro powers jealous! – Portugal and Spain have strict control over trade. Dutch, English and French Pirates prey on treasure ships leaving the Americas. (Argh) – Privateers -- Pirates operating with European gov’t approval – Other explorers kept searching for gold, other treasure, and a northwest passage to Asia. Assignment Using your notes from today and previous days, create a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire. – You should have at least 5 significant differences on each side, and 5 significant similarities in the center. – Complete this in your notebooks.