Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.
Review of WCST
 128 response cards
 four stimulus cards
 examinee instructed to match each of the cards to one of
the key cards
 examinee told whether answer is right or wrong but is
not told the sorting principle
 Sorting category is changed without warning and the
administration includes six sets of three possible sorting
categories
Variations of the WCST
Several variations in administration and scoring of the
WCST include modifications to the stimuli on the cards,
card order and number of cards.
One version follows the same administration and scoring
procedures but utilizes only half of the response cards.
(WCST-64)
Another version, the Modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
(M-WCST), was originally introduced by Hazel Nelson
(1976). This version incorporates modifications to the
stimuli and procedures.
Overview of the M-WCST
 Eliminates cards that share more than one attribute with
a key card
 Examinee determines the order of the sorting principle
 Examiner tells the examinee that the rules have changed
and instructs him or her to “find another rule.”
Why Modify the WCST?
 It saves time.
 It has the potential to be a better measure because it
does not have the confusing scoring issues of the WCST
and the WCST-64
 Instructions are easier to understand and less frustrating
for those with cognitive impairment
 It is easier to score.
Is the M-WCST clinically sensitive?
 The M-WCST is equally as sensitive as the WCST, if not
more sensitive, to executive dysfunction in individuals
diagnosed with schizophrenia.
 Rhodes (2004) found that the M-WCST showed greater
sensitivity than the WCST to age effects on number of
sorting categories achieved by older adults as compared
to younger adults.
 Van Gorp et al. (1997) concluded that the M-WCST and
WCST showed similar clinical sensitivity to cognitive
dysfunction.
Administration
 Card set up is the same as for WCST.
 Examinee will determine the order of the rules.
 Administer until they sort all categories (for each
category the examinee must have six consecutive right
responses) or until he or she has used all of the cards.
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M-WCST - Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.