Chapter 19
Teamwork in Organizations
组织中的团队
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Objectives
• Identify the types of teams in organizations.
• Discuss new applications of teams to facilitate employee
involvement.
• Identify roles within teams and the type of role you could
play to help a team be effective.
• Explain the general stages of team development.
• Explain the concepts of team cohesiveness and team norms
and their relationship to team performance.
• Understand the causes of conflict within and among teams
and how to reduce conflict.
• Discuss the assets and liabilities of organizational teams.
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Topics to be discussed
• Teams 团队
– 什么是团队
– 工作团队效益模型
• Types of teams 团队类型
– 正式团队
– 自我指导团队
• Work Team Characteristics 团
队的特点
– 团队规模
– 成员角色
• Team Processes 团队过程
– 团队发展阶段
– 团队凝聚力
– 团队规范
• Managing Team Conflict 管理
团队冲突
– 冲突的原因
– 解决冲突的风格
• Benefits and Costs of Teams 团
队的益处和成本
– 团队的潜在益处
– 团队的潜在成本
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团队
Teams
• 什么是团队
– A unit of two or more people who interact and coordinate
their work to accomplish a specific goal.
–由两个或两个以上成员组成的互相作用、互相协调以完
成某项目标的单位。
• Made up of 2 or more people
• Have regular interaction
• Team members share a performance goal
• Work Team Effectiveness Model工作团队效益模型
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工作团队效益模型
Work Team Effectiveness Model
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团队类型
Types of teams
• Formal Teams 正式团队
– A team created by the organization as part of the formal
organization structure
– 由组织创建,是正式组织结构的一部分
• Self-Directed Teams自我指导团队
– A team consisting of 5-20 multiskilled workers who rotate jobs to
produce an entire product or service, often supervised by an
elected member.
– 由5-20名具有多种技能的员工组成,轮换工作以生产整个产
品或服务。团队负责人由选举产生。
• New Approaches to Teamwork
– Virtual teams 虚拟团队
– Global teams 全球团队
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正式团队
Formal Teams
• Vertical team 垂直团队
– A formal team composed of a manager and his or her subordinates in the
organization’s formal chain of command.
– 由一位经理和其正式命令链中的下属组成
• Horizontal team 水平团队
– A formal team composed of employees from about the same hierarchical
level but from different areas of expertise.
– 由同一层级但具有不同专长的职员组成
• Task force 任务小组
• Committee 委员会
• Special-Purpose 特殊目的团队
– created outside the formal organization for special projects and disband
once project is completed.
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自我指导团队
Self-Directed Teams
• Problem-solving team 解决问题团队
– Typically 5-12 hourly employees from the same department who
meet to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the
work environment.
– 由5-12人以小时计酬的来自同一部门的自愿人员组成,目的
是为了讨论能够提高质量、效益、工作环境的各种方法。
• Self-Directed Teams自我指导团队
– Include employees with several skills and functions
– Given access to various resources
– Is empowered with decision making authority
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New Approaches to Teamwork
• Virtual teams虚拟团队
– consist of geographically or organizationally dispersed members
linked via technology
– 主要使用先进的信息技术和远程通讯技术将地理分布遥远的
员工组织在一起以完成共同任务
• Global teams全球团队
– cross boarder teams made up of members from different
nationalities
– 由不同国籍的成员组成的跨国界工作团队,团队成员的活动
在多个国家内进行
– Two categories
• Intercultural teams 跨文化团队
• Virtual global teams 虚拟全球团队
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团队的特点
Characteristics of Teams
 Size 规模
 Ideal size: 7
 good team:from 5 to 12
 Small teams 小团队
 2-4 members
 show more agreement, ask
more questions
 Large teams 大团队
 12 or more
 tend to have more
disagreements
 Member Roles 成员角色
 Task specialist role任务专家
 spend time and energy helping the
team reach its goal
 Socio-emotional role社会情绪
 support team members’ emotional
needs
 Dual role 双重角色
 Nonparticipator role 非参与型
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Task Specialist Role Behaviors
Initiation
Give opinions
Seek information
Summarize
Energize
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Socioemotional Role Behaviors
Encourage
Harmonize
Reduce tension
Follow
Compromise
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成员角色
Team Member Roles
High
Member
Task
Behavior
Task Specialist Role
Dual Role
· Focuses on task accomplishment
over human needs.
· Important role, but if adopted by
everyone, team’s social needs
won’t be met.
· Focuses on task and people.
· May be a team leader.
· Important role, but not essential if
members adopt task specialist and
socioemotional roles.
Nonparticipator Role
Socioemotional Role
· Contributes little to either task or
people needs of team.
· Not an important role-if adopted by
too many members, team will
disband.
· Focuses on people needs of
team over task.
· Important role, but if adopted by
everyone, team’s tasks won’t be
accomplished.
Low
Low
Member Social Behavior
High
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团队过程
Team Processes
• Stages of Team Development
团队发展阶段
• Team Cohesiveness
团队凝聚力
• Team Norms
团队规范
– A standard of conduct that is shared by team members
and guides their behavior.
– 指团队成员公认并共同遵守的行为标准 ,它们是非
正式的。
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团队发展阶段
Stages of Team Development
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Forming 形成阶段:
Orientation, break the ice
Leader: Facilitate social interchanges
2
Storming 爆发阶段:
Conflict, disagreement
Leader: Encourage participation
3
Norming 规范阶段:
Establishment of order and cohesion
Leader: Help clarify team roles, norms, values
4
Performing 执行阶段:
Cooperation, problem solving
Leader: Facilitate task accomplishment
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Adjourning 终止阶段:
Task completion
Leader: Bring closure, signify completion
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团队凝聚力
Team Cohesiveness
• Team Cohesiveness团队凝聚力
– The extent to which team members are attracted to the team and
motivated to remain in it.
– 指团队成员在多大程度上受团队吸引并留在该团队
• Determinants 决定因素
– structure 团队结构
• interaction相互作用
• shared goals共同目标
• Personal attraction to the team团队的个人吸引力
– context 环境
• competition竞争
• success and favorable evaluation团队成功与团队评价
• Consequences 团队凝聚力的结果
– morale士气
– productivity 生产力
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团队规范的形成
Development of Team Norms
传播行为
首发行为原则
Carryover from
Primacy: first
other experiences behavior precedents
明确陈述
Explicit
statements
from leaders
or members
Team
Norms
关键事件
Critical events
in team’s history
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管理团队冲突
Managing Team Conflict
• Conflict 冲突
– Antagonistic interaction in which one party attempts to thwart the
intentions of goals of another
– 指某方试图阻碍另一方的意图或目标而产生的敌意性的相互
作用
• Causes of conflict 冲突的原因
–
–
–
–
–
–
Scarce Resources 资源稀缺
Jurisdictional Ambiguities 司法混淆
Communication Breakdown 沟通衰退
Personality Clashes 个性冲突
Power and Status Differences 权力和地位差异
Goal Differences 目标差异
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管理团队冲突
Managing Team Conflict
• Styles to handle conflict 解决冲突的风格
–
–
–
–
Competing style竞争风格
Avoiding style回避风格
Compromising style妥协风格
Accommodating style随和风格
– Collaborating style协作风格
• Techniques to handle conflict 解决冲突的技巧
–
–
–
–
Superordinate goals 最高目标
Bargaining/negotiation 讨价还价/谈判
Mediation 调停
Facilitating communication 促进沟通
• Focus on facts关注事实 ; Develop multiple alternatives开发多个解
决方案 ; Maintain a balance of power保持权力的平衡 ; Never force
a consensus不要强迫达成共识
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解决冲突的风格
Handling Conflict Models
Assertive
Competing
Assertiveness
(Attempting to
Satisfy one’s own
concerns)
Unassertive
Collaborating
Compromising
Avoiding
Uncooperative
Accommodating
Cooperative
Cooperativeness
(Attempting to satisfy the other
party’s concerns)
Source: Adapted from Kenneth Thomas, “Conflict and Conflict Management,” in Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Behavior, ed. M. D. Dunnette (New
York: John Wiley, 1976), 900.
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团队的益处和成本
Benefits and Costs of Teams
• Potential benefits
团队的潜在益处
– Level of effort努力的程度
– Social facilitation 社会促
进
– Satisfaction 成员的满意度
– Expanded job knowledge
and skills扩大知识和技能
– Organizational flexibility
组织弹性
• Potential costs
团队的潜在成本
– Power realignment 权力
的重新分配
– Free riding 搭便车
– Coordination cost 协调
成本
– Revising systems 修改
系统
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Case Study
• Acme Minerals Extraction Company
– What types of teams described in the chapter
are represented in this case?
– Why do you think the team project succeeded at
Wichita but isn’t working in Lubbock?
– What advice would you give Suzanne Howard
and her team for improving the employee
involvement climate at the Lubbock plant?
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