STORYTELLING IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS MAJA JERKOVIĆ SESSION OUTLINE WHAT IS STORYTELLING? LEARNING THROUGH STORIES STORYTELLING TO TEENAGERS STORIES FOR UPPER GRADES/ EXAMPLE TPRS/ EXAMPLE STORYTELLING IN CYBERSPACE/ EXAMPLE FEEDBACK Reading is the key to successful storytelling! What is storytelling? Storytelling is many things to many people. It is entertainment, a way of passing on a culture's history, or a way of teaching to both the young and the old. It is something that must be experienced and tried before you can fully understand it. More than anything else, storytelling is an art. An art that anyone can participate in. We all are storytellers, whether we realize it or not. (Adapted from “Tim Sheppard’s Storytelling Resources for Storytellers” website) LEARNING THROUGH STORIES STORYTELLING… Develops empathy/ compassion Teaches a moral Deepens the relationship between teacher- students Encourages involvement, discussion, peer cooperation and interaction Enhances imagination and visualisation Develops all four skills Introduces different cultures and worlds Storytelling introduces students to the beauty of language and literature. (parallelism/ rich vocabulary/ alliteration/ contrast/ metaphor/ narrative/ dialogue) STORYTELLING - TEENAGERS A BOX! TEENAGERS/ ADOLESCENTS: Want to please and impress their peers Have a greater capacity for abstract thinking Talk about more conceptual ideas Are capable of creative thought Are dedicated to topics STORIES FOR UPPER GRADES TYPES OF STORIES -fairy tales/ legends/ ethical/ crime/ ghost/ adventure/ nature stories/ stories of romance/ comic stripsCREATING STORIES Creativity enriches and empowers students with self-confidence Stories are prompted with visual aids (pictures, drawings, charts, objects, magazines…) to help us create chunks, retell stories using Chinese whispers, write chain stories… Example Joe BEFORE GOING TO PRISON AFTER BEING PUT TO PRISON HAS A GOOD JOB A GIRLFRIEND A HOUSE A LOT OF MONEY IS HAPPY SATISFIED HAS NO JOB NO GIRLFRIEND NO HOUSE NO MONEY IS SAD NOT SATISFIED NOW HE IS IN PRISON AND HE He used to have a girlfriend. Did he use to have a lot of money? He used to have a house. He didn’t use to be sad. COMPREHENSION! 60% of all human communication is nonverbal, body language; 30% is your tone; Therefore 90% of what you are saying doesn’t come out of your mouth. We need 100% for comprehension! Stephen Krashen’s input hypothesis - we acquire a language only when we receive comprehensible input in a low-anxiety environment Total Physical Response Storytelling -TPRS TPR method- developed by Dr. James Asher allows a pre-speaking phase and suits beginner levels Drawbacks- directed by teacher/ promotes receptive skills/ emphasizes commands/ neglects the use of narratives, descriptions and conversations/ limits creativity TPRS- developed by Blaine Ray, a Spanish teacher It transforms words into magic; it brings books, languages and teenagers to life. TPRS strategies utilize vocabulary by incorporating it into stories Students hear, watch, act out, retell, revise, read and eventually even write and rewrite Gestures performed by the teacher/ students are used to facilitate comprehension Prior to the oral stage students respond kinaesthetically TPRS emphasizes – positive/ collaborative/ supportive classroom climate in which all skills are equally developed Example - Listen to a story and mime! STORYTELLING IN CYBERSPACE Storytellers: Access new information easily and share ideas Link their students to theatre sites, reading resources, web sites linked to theme and topic being researched Share stories/ watch a short video and write/ create a chain story/ write with prompts/ join in a competition in essay writing… Websites offer a wide range of activity sheets, lesson plans, interactive tasks, short videos, films and pictures that can become realia for the teachers to use to prompt the storytelling or story writing Example Watch a clip and write a story! Consider some of the following ideas! Where did the story happen? Who was the man? Who was the other man? What happened later/ before that? Introduce any other characters and have fun! Gary Player “The more I practice, the better I become and the better I become, the luckier I get!” Practice makes perfect! Thank you! References Cameron, L. (2001). Teaching Languages to Young Learners. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 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(2002), “Tim Sheppard’s Storytelling Resources for Storytellers”. http://www.timsheppard.co.uk/story/index.html Updated to 19 July 2007. Wright, A. (1995). Storytelling with Children. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wright, A. (1997). Creating Stories with Children. Oxford: Oxford University Press.