WELCOME, WATERBURY TEACHERS! STC-MS SCIENCE PROGRAM DIANA COREY -4 NOVEMBER, 2014 GOALS FOR THIS SESSION Set up a sample notebook Discuss STC pedagogy Learn about kit contents & materials management Conduct inquiries from your unit Answer your questions SETTING UP NOTEBOOKS Begin table of contents…………………..fold page to add date column Number pages (ODD #’s on right hand page) Word Bank, Question Bank in back pages Before – During - After B Focus Questions can serve as titles D Use NB pages &/or student sheets A Opportunity for formative assessment Goals of the STC Middle School Curriculum • To enable students to work as scientists do, through experimentation and investigation • To provide a continuum of inquiry activities, from guided to open-ended • To provide opportunities for problem solving • To develop skills, knowledge, and a positive attitude towards science • To make science relevant and accessible to SUCCESS THROUGH INQUIRY! • To engage students with materials and concepts through the process of inquiry YOUR STC UNITS Earth in Space Catastrophic Events Human Body Systems YOUR STC UNITS, CONT’D. Properties of Matter Energy, Machines & Motion MATERIALS LISTINGS IN TG Listing by lesson # & quantity needed NBNS –materials that you already have… CONCEPT STORYLINE Lesson-by-lesson sequencing, with key concepts Each unit consists of 3 main parts Lesson 1 is a Preassessment for the unit Final lesson is a summative assessment in 2 parts: Selected Response Performance Assessment Materials & Classroom Management: Setting up lessons –”tote that tote” Distribution centers Cooperative group roles Embedded management tips Materials organization schemes Refurbishment of consumables…? COOPERATIVE GROUPS / “COLLEAGUES” SAMPLE NOTEBOOK FOR A LESSON Lesson # __ Focus Question or Lesson Title Work can be recorded here, or tape or staple a student sheet on the page L e.g. Sentence starter____________ Or Exit question DATE: WORD WALL Always post vocabulary on WW AFTER students have had experience with the real thing! TIPS: Allow students to add words –keep postits handy Use color coding for various types of words. CONCEPT STORYLINE FOR POM Let’s review what comes before lesson 4… “I heart density” DENSITY = INQUIRY 4 –FINDING THE DENSITY OF AIR FOCUS P.30: demo, use NB for #2, 4, 5 EXPLORE –p. 33 Use NB for #1 –write a procedure & ‘results table’ INQUIRY 4 –FINDING THE DENSITY OF AIR REFLECT – P. 33 –we’re using a chart: Why Do Some Things Float In Air? APPLY: readers, Deadly Density & Air Heads CONCEPT STORYLINE FOR POM Let’s Review What Comes After Lesson 4… Part 2: Mixtures And Solutions Part 3: Compounds, Elements, And Chemical Reactions LESSON 9- THE MYSTERY OBJECT FOCUS Getting Started p.79 –read instructions EXPLORE / ASSESS –Inquiry 9.1 ‘open book’ –use NBs, student sheets, SG… Identify substance that makes up your mystery object This is an embedded assessment Rubric provided, TG p.104 PROPERTIES OF MATTER LESSON 10 ---ANCHOR ACTIVITY Given a simple object, what is it made from and what are some of its historical implications and uses? A research project in 4 parts: …….choosing a compound …..research (SG p.90) ……..making the cube …..oral presentation DID WE MEET OUR OBJECTIVES? Set up a sample notebook Discuss STC pedagogy Learn about kit contents & materials management Conduct inquiries from your unit What are your questions now? What are your next steps? EARTH IN SPACE The underlying theme of the module: Systems and Motion Shadow patterns, eclipses, phases, and seasons are the direct result of rotational and orbital motion within the Sun-Earth-Moon system. Gravity governs orbital motion within the solar system. PART 1 SUN-EARTH-MOON LESSON 1 - THINKING ABOUT PLANET EARTH Concepts: Earth is a planet in our solar system; Earth has evolved through history; seasons, day and night, and gravity can be explained within the context of Earth being a planet Students FOCUS QUESTIONS: Record their ideas and questions about Earth in space. What do you know about the Record and examine their Earth in space? responses to 10 common questions about space. What do you want to know? LESSON 2 - INTRODUCING THE EARTHMOON SYSTEM Concepts: The Sun is a star; the Earth and Moon rotate on their axis; the Moon orbits the Earth; the Earth orbits the Sun FOCUS QUESTION: What do you know about the Sun-Earth-Moon system? Students • Use models to demonstrate their knowledge of the Sun-Earth-Moon. Examine the diameters and distances between the Earth, Moon, and Sun. • Compare the relative distances between two objects based on their apparent and true diameters. • Record the times that the Moon rises and sets over a two-week period. • LESSON 3 - TRACKING SHADOWS Concepts: Relationships between shadows and the apparent position of the Sun; shadow changes with time of day and year; position of the Sun in different seasons; the ecliptic as the apparent path of the Sun across the sky; rotation of the Earth and the apparent movement of the Sun across the sky FOCUS QUESTIONS: What do shadows tell us about the S-E-M system? How do daily shadows change? What do they tell us about the Earth’s rotation? How are summer and winter shadows alike and different? What do they tell us about the Earth’s revolution? LESSON 3 - TRACKING SHADOWS Cont’d. Students Record the length of shadows. • Relate shadow length with the Sun’s position in the sky. • Model winter and summer shadows. • Model the Earth’s rotation and relate it to the Sun’s apparent motion across the sky. • Create a definition of rotation. • LET’S EXPLORE TRACKING SHADOWS FOCUS QUESTION: How are summer and winter shadows alike and different? In 3.1, students collect actual sun shadows & in 3.2, use computerized shadow data to compare summer & winter shadows INQUIRY 3.3 - TRACKING SHADOWS FOCUS QUESTION: How are summer and winter shadows alike and different? FOCUS P. 22 –read Introduction EXPLORE -Inquiry 3.3 Pp. 31-32 Let’s work in 2 groups: Summer & Winter REFLECT –p. 33 APPLY: reader, The Anasazi: Ancient Skywatchers LESSON 4 - SEASONS ON EARTH Concepts: Seasons result from the Earth’s tilt; Earth’s northern axis points to the Pole Star; shadows change with time of day and year; day length varies at different latitudes FOCUS QUESTIONS: What causes seasons? How do the length of days and the apparent path of the Sun differ at different latitudes? Students • Model Earth’s orbit. • Compare sunset and sunrise at different latitudes throughout the year. • Relate changes in the apparent path of the Sun and the length of day to Earth’s orbit on its tilted axis. • Create a definition of a revolution or orbit. LESSON 5 - INVESTIGATING LUNAR PHASES Concepts: Moon reflects light; phases of the Moon; cause of phases of the Moon; predictability of lunar phases FOCUS QUESTION: What causes the predictable cycle of changes in the Moon’s appearance? Students • Analyze data they have collected on the Moon’s appearance. • Model lunar phases. • Identify phases by name and analyze the time of day in which each phase is visible from Earth. LESSON 6 - SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSES Concepts: The alignment of the Sun, Moon, and Earth to produce solar and lunar eclipses; planetary shadows have an umbra and penumbra; the location of the planetary body within the shadow cone determines the type of eclipse FOCUS QUESTIONS: What causes eclipses? During what lunar phase does a lunar eclipse occur and why? During what lunar phase does a solar eclipse occur and why? Students • Watch video footage of an eclipse and then model shadows produced by the Moon and the Earth. SUN, EARTH, MOON VIDEO NOTES: @ 2:45…………………….Sun as energy source @ ~8-11 mins…………. ‘Summer/ Winter’ demo @ 15-18 mins…………. Tides @ 18-23:30……………..Eclipses LESSON 6 – CONT’D. Students Analyze the conditions under which the Moon and Earth shadows cause eclipses. Describe the phases during which lunar and solar eclipses occur. Develop working definitions of the terms umbra and penumbra. LESSON 7 - THE SUN AS AN ENERGY SOURCE Concepts: Radiation as the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves; solar radiation as the major source of Earth’s energy; variation of electromagnetic energy with distance from source; effect of atmosphere on absorption and reflection of solar energy Students • Investigate the effect of distance on the amount of energy received from a light source. • Design an investigation to determine how different variables affect the energy received from a light source. LESSON 7 - THE SUN AS AN ENERGY SOURCE FOCUS P. 89 –read Using Eclipses To Study Solar Wind EXPLORE -Inquiry 7.1 Pp. 90-91 For this inquiry, change only the distance from the bulb Teach the tool: STOPWATCH INQUIRY 7.1 – RADIANT ENERGY Reflect –P. 91 Apply: Reader, Distance And Light LESSON 7 - THE SUN AS AN ENERGY SOURCE REFLECT –p. 89 Be sure to refer back to misconceptions, TG 85 APPLY: reader, p. 92 Distance And Light *review questions D and E* LESSON 8 - SUNSPOTS AND SPACE WEATHER Concepts: The nature, location and number of sunspots changes. The location of sunspots reveal information about the Sun’s rotation. Space weather Is a cause of solar disturbances. Students • Examine projected images of the Sun. • Analyze patterns in the locations of sunspots. • Graph sunspot data and identify sunspot maximum and minimums. • Read about the effects of sunspots and space weather on Earth. LESSON 8 - SUNSPOTS AND SPACE WEATHER Concepts: The nature, location and number of sunspots changes. The location of sunspots reveal information about the Sun’s rotation. Space weather Is a cause of solar disturbances. www.space.com HAS NEWS ABOUT DECLINING SUN SPOTS A photo of a sunspot taken in May 2010, with Earth shown to scale. The image has been colorized for aesthetic reasons…. CREDIT: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, V.M.J. Henriques (sunspot), NASA Apollo 17 (Earth) LESSON 9 - SUN-EARTH-MOON SYSTEM ASSESSMENT This lesson is the assessment for Part 1 of the module. The assessment consists of three parts: Part A - Performance-based assessment in which students investigate the relationship between the temperature of a surface and its distance from a light source. • Part B - Selected response (multiple choice) and short answer questions. • Part C - Revisiting an activity from Lesson 2 to see how much students have learned. • PART 2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Lesson 10 - Anchor Activity: Space Exploration The Anchor Activity challenges students, over a period of a few weeks, to examine space science from a historical and technological perspective. Concepts: The influence of scientific advancement; limits of science and technology; role of the space program in our understanding of the solar system •Cont’d…. Student research project EARTH IN SPACE Lesson 10 –ANCHOR Activity Design a travel brochure for one of the planets in our system, including Earth. Plan an exploration voyage for scientists to travel there. EVERYTHING YOU NEED IS PROVIDED: •ACTIVITY GUIDELINES •ACTIVITY TIME LINE •LETTER TO PARENTS •ACTIVITY OUTLINE(S) •SCORING RUBRICS LESSON 11 - THE SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGNING A SCALE MODEL Concepts: The solar system, its size, planets, comets and asteroids; the nature of models; scale and scale models FOCUS QUESTIONS: • What does a scale model of the solar system look like? • How can it help us understand the vastness of the solar system? Students • Brainstorm what they know about the planets and the distances between them. • Use a set of scaled items to model the solar system. • Explore the relative diameters of, and distances between, the planets and the Sun. Lesson 12 - Impact Craters Concepts: The cause and different characteristics of impact • craters; ejected materials; erosion and destruction of craters on Earth by weather, tectonics and volcanism Students • Classify photos of planets, moons and asteroids on the basis of their surface features. • Model impact cratering. • Design an experiment to investigate how the size, shape, and velocity of impact objects affect crater formation. Lesson 13 - Surface Features Concepts: Planetary processes (wind erosion, tectonics, volcanism and impact cratering) on Earth, other planets, and asteroids; use of relative locations of lava flows and craters to indicate the age of a planet surface Students • Examine photos of Earth’s surface. • Identify features and consider whether the processes that created them occur on other planets. • Brainstorm planetary processes. • Analyze photos of planetary surface features. LESSON 14 - SURFACE GRAVITY Concepts: Gravity as a force that attracts objects to each other; surface gravity holds us to Earth’s surface; surface gravity depends upon mass and planetary radius; mass as the amount of matter in an object; weight as a measure of gravity FOCUS QUESTIONS: •What does the weight of an object on a planet’s surface tell us about the planet? •What is the difference between mass and weight? LESSON 14 - SURFACE GRAVITY Cont’d. Students • Use a model to compare the weight of a can on different planetary surfaces. Relate an object’s weight on a planet to a planet’s mass and diameter. Describe how mass and weight are related. • LESSON 15 - GRAVITY AND ORBITAL MOTION Concepts: All objects attract others with gravity; gravity governs all motion; most objects in the solar system are in regular and predictable motion; unbalanced forces (gravity) can change the speed and direction of an object FOCUS QUESTION: •How does gravity affect orbital motion? Students: • Observe a computer animation of the movement of bodies around the Sun. • Conduct inquiries that focus on orbital motion. • LESSON 16 - GRAVITY AND TIDES Concepts: Tides as the periodic rise and fall of bodies of water; gravitational attraction between the Moon and the Earth and the Sun and the Earth as the cause of two high and low tides per day; the change in time of tides each day FOCUS QUESTIONS: 1.How does gravity affect periodic rise and fall of Earth’s oceans? 2.What patterns exist in tidal data? 3.How are tides, lunar phases and the position of the Moon and Earth in the S-E-M system related to tides? LESSON 16 - GRAVITY AND TIDES Students Read about the effect of tides. • Brainstorm ideas about tides. • Watch a video that models tides. • Analyze and draw conclusion about tides from data. • Look at tidal processes on the Earth and other bodies within the solar system. • PART 3 EARTH’S HISTORY AS A PLANET Lesson 17 - Asteroids, Comets, and Meteors Concepts: Solar system includes smaller objects such as asteroids and comets; the nature and location of asteroids, comets, and meteors; the catastrophic effects of asteroid impacts Students • Look at ways asteroids, comets, and meteoroids have contributed to changes in Earth’s history. • Examine the effect of asteroid and comet impact. • Analyze the ability of scientists to predict asteroid impact. • Read about Earth-observing missions. Lesson 18 - Fossils as Evidence of Asteroid Impact Concepts: Fossils are evidence for once-living organisms; fossils provide evidence of how life and environments have changed; molds and casts are examples of two fossilizing mechanisms. Students • Examine fossiliferous limestone. • Brainstorm their knowledge of fossils. • Use illustrations to examine the relative ages of fossils. • Model fossil formation. • Watch a video and read about extinctions and asteroid impact. LESSON 19 - COMPARING PLANETS: IS THE EARTH UNIQUE? Concepts: Similarities and differences between Earth and other planets; the possibility and possible nature of life on other planets; climate and how climate change can cause extinction; the role of living organisms on Earth FOCUS QUESTIONS: •What has the space program told us about the planets in our solar system? •How does the Earth compare with other planets? •What might future missions to the planets look like? Students • Present their travel brochures and mission designs; explain how a planet’s features affect scientists’ ability to study it. • Compare Earth to other planets in the solar system. • Explore the effects of climate change on Earth. Lessons 20–21 - Exploring Space Technology Concepts: Products and processes developed for space technology can enhance the quality of life; science and technology have been advanced by the space program; scientists and engineers work in many different settings; technological designs have constraints Students • Read about spinoffs from the space program; research a spinoff product; and create a presentation and “Space Technology and Research” (STAR) poster about it. • Present and discuss their STAR posters. • Evaluate designs or products that use space technology. • Review Parts 2 and 3 of the module. Lesson 22 - Solar System Assessment This lesson is an assessment of the concepts and skills addressed in Parts 2 and 3 of the module. The assessment consists of three parts: • Part A - Performance assessment in which students plan an investigation to model how distance affects planetary orbital period. • Part B - Written assessment consisting of multiple choice and short answer questions. • Part C - Duplicate of the pre-module assessment. By comparing results from this and data from the preassessment, you may obtain data that indicate student growth in knowledge and skills. DID WE MEET OUR OBJECTIVES? Set up a sample notebook Discuss STC pedagogy Learn about kit contents & materials management Conduct inquiries from your unit What are your questions now? What are your next steps?