LEARNING MATERIALS AND
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: MAKING
DISTANCE EDUCATION WORK
Dr Sushmita Mitra
Director (SSS)
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OPEN SCHOOLING, INDIA
AGENTS OF CHANGE IN
EDUCATION
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Rapid development in learning theories.
Rapid advancement in Information and
Communication Technology (ICT)
PARADIGM SHIFT
PARADIGM SHIFT IN EDUCATION
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From Institution-led learning to own-time selflearning at a distance.
From teaching to self-paced-learning slowly
moving towards flexibilities and openness.
Gave rise to an alternative system of education often
known as Open and Distance Learning (ODL) System.
LEARNING PARADIGM SHIFT
TEACHER TAUGHT
TRADITIONAL
SYSTEM
SPATIO-TEMPORAL FIXEDNESS
CURRICULUM FIXEDNESS
PARIDGM SHIFT
SELF LEARNING
CORRESPONDENCE
EDUCATION
FREEDOM OF LOCATION
CURRICULUM FIXEDNESS
PARIDGM SHIFT
SELF LEARNING
ODL EDUCATIONAL
SYSTEM
FREEDOM OF LOCATION
FREEDOM TO LEARN
The barriers of space, pace, time and many
of the rigidities of the formal education are
withdrawn in ODL and this gave rise to
Open Schooling system in the country.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF OPEN SCHOOLING(NIOS)
14 STATE OPEN SCHOOLS (SOSs) IN
DIFFERENT STATES
PERSPECTIVES AND ORIENTATIONS TOWARDS
LEARNING IN ODL SYSTEM

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Everyone can learn (Burns 1967).
Learning is private and occurs at a distance when the
learner and the instructor/ institution are separated in
time and place
Learning is mediated by a provider arranging for
 guided didactic conversation, or
 non contiguous communication, or
 two way interpersonal communication to recreate
learning link, or
 educational transaction using technology and
communication theory, or
 virtual contiguity by integrating systems that bring
teacher and learner together, optimum dialogue
between them and eliminate consequences of being
separate in space.
PERSPECTIVES AND ORIENTATIONS
TOWARDS LEARNING IN ODL SYSTEM



Learning involves collaborated experience between
a teacher and a learner, which is totally dependent
on a two way communication facilitated by
technology.
Learning considers requirements of both the
learning task and learner i.e. principles of
pedagogy/andragogy and structure of knowledge
has an apparent influence on learning.
Learner control is based on the inter-relationship
between independence (as in self directed learner),
proficiency (as in the ability to learn independently)
and support (characterized by the resources
available to guide and facilitate the educational
transaction.
Learner Centred Instructional System
in Open Schooling
1.
COUNSELLING
7. RESOURCE
CENTRE HELP
2. COURSE
MATERIALS
3.
ASSIGNMENTS
LEARNER
6. FACE TO
FACE
PROGRAMME
5. RADIO AND
TV,
4. TUTOR
GUIDANCE
Instructional Delivery System
Based on following premises:
 Availability,
 Accessibility and
 Appropriateness
For transaction of the curriculum at a distance,
the print medium is most suitable.
Print considered as the prime instructional
medium supported by other media materials like
audio and video materials in Open schooling.
Efficacy of Print Materials
Depends on the Instructional Design
(ID) chosen.
ID is dependent on the
 nature of subject matter,
 learner characteristics and previous
experiences and
 the type of learning expected.
Printed Learning Materials In Open
Schooling
Self-instructional Material (SIM) which is a written
elaboration of a set of learning opportunities,
organised around a well-defined theme/topic in
such a way that, it is
• a self contained instruction unit to be used in a
self learning situation.
• guarantees self-sufficiency.
• structured in such a way that it helps the learner
to find their way into the text and to find their way
through the text.
Structure of
A Lesson
Title
Introduction
Objectives
Section
Intext Questions
NO
Is it the last section
yes
What you have learnt
Glossary /Key Words
Terminal Exercise
Answers to Intext Question
Educational Resources
Support materials:
 Audio CD’s
 Video CD’s
 CAL
 Radio programmes through Gyan Vani
 TV programme through Gyan Darshan/and
DD1 channel
The NIOS WEBSITE
www.nios.ac.in
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Information dissemination
24x7 online admission
Course material
Evaluation/assessment papers for
practice
Tutor marked assignments
Student information regarding
admission and examination dates
List of Study centers
Other related matter
Enrolment of Differently Able Learners in NIOS
9000
8000
7695
7000
No of Learners
6000
5000
2009-10
2008-09
4000
2826
3000
2000
1576
1337
1260
842
1000
601
196 283
566
1199
992
710
181 133
338
0
Loco Motor
Visually
Impaired
Hearing
Impaired
Leprosy Cured
Mentally
Retarded
Multiple
Cerebral Palsy
Learning
disability
Course-wise Enrolment of Differently Able Learners
2000
1829
1800
1600
No of Learners
1400
1200
SEC
997
1000
SRSEC
808
800
660 677
602
600
391
382
400
291
240
200
117
166 172
99 82
79
0
Loco Motor
Visually
Impaired
Hearing
Impaired
Leprosy
Cured
Mentally
Retarded
Multiple
Cerebral
Palsy
Learning
disability
There is nothing like a dream
to create the future.
....Victor Hugo
Thank You
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Making Distance Education Work