1
Understanding
the Supply Chain
PowerPoint presentation to accompany
Chopra and Meindl Supply Chain Management, 5e
Global Edition
Copyright
Copyright ©2013
©2013 Pearson
Pearson Education.
Education
1-1
What is a Supply Chain?

All stages involved, directly or indirectly, in
fulfilling a customer request

Includes manufacturers, suppliers,
transporters, warehouses, retailers, and
customers

Within each company, the supply chain
includes all functions involved in fulfilling a
customer request (product development,
marketing, operations, distribution, finance,
customer service)
1-2
什麼是供應鏈?

供應鏈包含了在滿足顧客要求過程中,涉及
的所有直接或間接成員。

也涵蓋了配送商、批發商、零售商和顧客。

在每個公司內,供應鏈含括所有接收與滿足
顧客需求的各項功能(如新產品開發、行銷、
生產、配銷、財務和顧客服務等功能)。
1-3
Flows in a Supply Chain
1-4
1-5
Process View of a Supply
Chain

Cycle View: processes in a supply chain are
divided into a series of cycles, each
performed at the interfaces between two
successive supply chain stages

Push/Pull View: processes in a supply chain
are divided into two categories depending on
whether they are executed in response to a
customer order (pull) or in anticipation of a
customer order (push)
1-6
供應鏈的流程觀

循環觀點:供應鏈的流程可分成一序列循
環,每個循環在供應鏈兩個連續階段之間
被執行。

推/拉觀點:供應鏈的流程,依是否回應
或預期顧客訂單而分成兩類。拉的流程是
由顧客訂單開始;而推的流程是從顧客預
期訂單而起。
1-7
Cycle View
of Supply
Chain
Processes
1-8
供應鏈流程的循環觀點
1-9
Push/Pull View of
Supply Chain Processes

Supply chain processes fall into one of two
categories depending on the timing of their
execution relative to customer demand

Pull: execution is initiated in response to a
customer orders (reactive)

Push: execution is initiated in anticipation of
customer orders (speculative)
1-10
供應鏈流程的推/拉觀點

依照顧客需求的執行時間,所有的供應鏈過
程都被分成二種類型:

拉:執行始於回應顧客訂單(回應)

推:執行始於顧客訂單的預期(預測)
1-11
Push/Pull View of Supply
Chains
1-12
Push/Pull

Push: Make to Stock (MTS)
Short lead time, more demand uncertainties.

Pull: Make to Order (MTO)
Long lead time, less demand uncertainties.

Push/Pull: Make to Assembly (MTA)
Tradeoff between lead time and uncertainties.
1-13
供應鏈流程的推/拉觀點
採購、生產和補貨循環
推流程
客戶訂單循環
拉流程
顧客訂單到達
1-14
Supply Chain Macro
Processes


Supply chain processes discussed in the
two views can be classified into

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Internal Supply Chain Management (ISCM)

Supplier Relationship Management (SRM)
Integration among the above three macro
processes is critical for effective and
successful supply chain management
1-15
供應鏈的巨觀流程

所有公司的供應鏈流程可以劃分為以下三
種巨觀流程:


顧客關係管理(CRM)

內部供應鏈管理(ISCM)

供應商關係管理(SRM)
整合三種巨觀流程是供應鏈成功的關鍵
1-16
Supply Chain Macro
Processes
1-17
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Chapter 1 Understanding the supply chain