Creating a Classroom Culture of
High Expectations
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People First
“People First Language puts the person before the disability and describes
what a person has, not who a person is.”
Kathie Snow. (n.d.) A few words about People First Language. Disability is Natural. Retrieved
August 1, 2012 from
• Gain knowledge of the importance of high
expectations in the classroom
• Gain knowledge of students’ responses to high
• Gain knowledge of examples of high expectations
in the classrooms
What do you already know?
In an effort to better understand
participant knowledge level,
please take a moment to answer
these pre-questions that will
appear on your screen:
• Teacher Expectations are inferences or
assumptions made about future student
Teacher Expectations
• have both a positive and negative
effect on student learning and
• influence the ways in which
teachers evaluate students,
behave toward students, and
make decisions about students
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (2003). Looking in classrooms (9th ed.).
Pygmalion Effect
• asserts that “ones
expectations about a
person can eventually
lead that person to
behave and achieve in
ways that confirm those
Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968)
Behaviors That Teachers Display for
High and Low Expectations
Teacher Behavior for Students with
High Expectations
• Praise students for success and less likely to criticize
for failure in classroom task
• Offer feedback on assignments at a higher rate
• Correct and probe for students to answer questions
• Criticism as a means of communicating high
• Grading-given the benefit of the doubt
Good and Weinstein (1986): General Dimensions of Teachers’ Communication of Differential Expectations
Teacher Behavior for Students with
Low Expectations
Wait less time for students to answer questions
More likely to give the answer than probe
Tend to reward inappropriate or incorrect responses
Pay less attention/or do so privately more often than
Call on less frequently
Seat student further away
Smile less/less eye contact
Offer less learning material
Criticism as a means of degrading them, cutting them
off from attempts to complete work
Good and Weinstein (1986): General Dimensions of Teachers’ Communication of Differential Expectations
Teacher Behavior-Effect on Learning
• Widen the gap between low
and high achieving students
• Affect students’ own beliefs
about their competencies
Student Responses To
Student Passivity
• Defined-inactive; a lack of initiative
• Due to students being called on less often,
teachers giving answers, students having a
shorter wait time and students not likely to
have the correct response.
Silent Students
• Personal anxiety or anticipation of possible
• Low self-confidence vs. low knowledge
• Cultural reasons
• Prefer to learn by listening and thinking
Silent Students: Perspectives on More
Verbal Classmates
• Irritating
• Self-Centered
• Keeping others from having
a turn
• Smart (know it all)
Rosenthal, R. (1991). Teacher expectancy effects: A brief update 25 years after the Pygmalion experiment. Journal of
Research in Education
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
• Defined -- The process by which a person’s
expectations about someone can lead to that
someone behaving in ways which confirm to
the expectations
• Pygmalion in the Classroom -- Research by
Rosenthal and Jacobson
Students’ Perceptions of Teacher
• Expectations, either high or low, can become a
self-fulfilling prophecy.
• Teachers’ beliefs about student potential are
particularly powerful for students of color and
students from poor families.
Lisa Delpit (2012). Multiplication is for White People
High Expectations
• High expectations is both a
belief about student capability
and specific actions
undertaken to make those
beliefs a reality.
High Expectations
Response Opportunity
Personal Regard
Response Opportunities
• Individual Help
• Probing, Rephrasing, and
• Wait Time
• Equitable Response
• Higher Level Questions
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Wait Time
• Students who volunteer to answer will
increase as will the length of their responses
• Responses will demonstrate critical thinking
supported by evidence or logic
Equitable Response Opportunities
• The number of times teachers call on students
is directly related to the level of expectations
they have for them
• Teachers call on students when they have
confidence in their ability to answer a
• Teachers call on less students in whom they
have little confidence
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Questioning
• Leveling questions is a good practice, it helps
students to stretch their thinking
• Rephrase questions to aid students understanding
• Give students clues rather than pass over them
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Questioning
• If students are only asked questions that
require low levels of intellectual involvement
they will tend to think accordingly
• Students who are given questions based on
higher levels of thinking will tend to think
more creatively
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Bloom’s Taxonomy
• Recall information
• Ideas are organized
• Take knowledge and apply it
• Identify reasons, causes or motives
• Produce original ideas and solve problems
• Make judgment about something
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Skills (HOTS)
Skills (LOTS)
Personal Regard
Personal Interest
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Proximity
• Proximity communicates value
• Provides the teacher an opportunity to
develop a bond with each individual
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Touching
Shake hands
High five
Thumbs up
Boynton & Boynton (2005) Educator's Guide to Preventing and Solving Discipline Problems
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Personal Interest
• Incorporating students’ personal interests
into academics
• Noticing individual accomplishments and
important events in students' lives
• Interacting with students as individuals
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (2003). Looking in classrooms (9th ed.).
Expectations and Support
• Increase expectations without helping
students achieve success almost always leads
to frustration and failure
• Affirm or Correct Response
• Praise Performance
• Give Reason For Praise
• Listen Attentively
• Accept and Reflect Feelings
Feedback: Grading Strategy
• What does an “F” really mean?
• Grading: A, B, C, and NY (Not Yet!)
communicates what is expected from students
Feedback with Families
• Effective teachers produce and share progress
reports and grades weekly with families and
• Reaffirms the teachers and families approach
to students learning
Porterfield & Carnes (2012) Why Social Media Matters
• Beginning and ending every instructional
segment with a review of past learning and
the big picture
• Inspiring students to probe “why?” and “how
do you know that you know?”
• Requiring students to express their thinking
and learning through speaking, writing and
• Students need constant feedback on how well
they are performing
• Feedback is a two way proposition
High Expectations
Response Opportunity
Personal Regard
Building Capacity
• When you leave today, what will you do with this
• How will you share it with others in your district?
• When will you share it? (Timeline)
Note: If you are on the district leadership team, this
information will be useful in completing your district’s LASPDG
5 Year Plan
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Creating a Classroom Culture of High Expectations