Creating a Classroom Culture of
High Expectations
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People First
Language
“People First Language puts the person before the disability and describes
what a person has, not who a person is.”
Kathie Snow. (n.d.) A few words about People First Language. Disability is Natural. Retrieved
August 1, 2012 from http://www.disabilityisnatural.com/images/PDF/pfl-sh09.pdf
• Gain knowledge of the importance of high
expectations in the classroom
• Gain knowledge of students’ responses to high
expectations
• Gain knowledge of examples of high expectations
in the classrooms
5
What do you already know?
In an effort to better understand
participant knowledge level,
please take a moment to answer
these pre-questions that will
appear on your screen:
Vocabulary
• Teacher Expectations are inferences or
assumptions made about future student
behavior.
Teacher Expectations
• have both a positive and negative
effect on student learning and
achievement
• influence the ways in which
teachers evaluate students,
behave toward students, and
make decisions about students
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (2003). Looking in classrooms (9th ed.).
Pygmalion Effect
• asserts that “ones
expectations about a
person can eventually
lead that person to
behave and achieve in
ways that confirm those
expectations”
Rosenthal & Jacobson (1968)
Behaviors That Teachers Display for
High and Low Expectations
Teacher Behavior for Students with
High Expectations
• Praise students for success and less likely to criticize
for failure in classroom task
• Offer feedback on assignments at a higher rate
• Correct and probe for students to answer questions
• Criticism as a means of communicating high
standards
• Grading-given the benefit of the doubt
Good and Weinstein (1986): General Dimensions of Teachers’ Communication of Differential Expectations
Teacher Behavior for Students with
Low Expectations
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Wait less time for students to answer questions
More likely to give the answer than probe
Tend to reward inappropriate or incorrect responses
Pay less attention/or do so privately more often than
publicly
Call on less frequently
Seat student further away
Smile less/less eye contact
Offer less learning material
Criticism as a means of degrading them, cutting them
off from attempts to complete work
Good and Weinstein (1986): General Dimensions of Teachers’ Communication of Differential Expectations
Teacher Behavior-Effect on Learning
• Widen the gap between low
and high achieving students
• Affect students’ own beliefs
about their competencies
Student Responses To
Expectations
Student Passivity
• Defined-inactive; a lack of initiative
• Due to students being called on less often,
teachers giving answers, students having a
shorter wait time and students not likely to
have the correct response.
Silent Students
Why?
• Personal anxiety or anticipation of possible
embarrassment
• Low self-confidence vs. low knowledge
• Cultural reasons
• Prefer to learn by listening and thinking
Silent Students: Perspectives on More
Verbal Classmates
• Irritating
• Self-Centered
• Keeping others from having
a turn
• Smart (know it all)
Rosenthal, R. (1991). Teacher expectancy effects: A brief update 25 years after the Pygmalion experiment. Journal of
Research in Education
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
• Defined -- The process by which a person’s
expectations about someone can lead to that
someone behaving in ways which confirm to
the expectations
• Pygmalion in the Classroom -- Research by
Rosenthal and Jacobson
Students’ Perceptions of Teacher
Expectations
• Expectations, either high or low, can become a
self-fulfilling prophecy.
• Teachers’ beliefs about student potential are
particularly powerful for students of color and
students from poor families.
Lisa Delpit (2012). Multiplication is for White People
High Expectations
• High expectations is both a
belief about student capability
and specific actions
undertaken to make those
beliefs a reality.
High Expectations
Response Opportunity
Personal Regard
Feedback
Response Opportunities
• Individual Help
• Probing, Rephrasing, and
Clues
• Wait Time
• Equitable Response
Opportunities
• Higher Level Questions
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Wait Time
• Students who volunteer to answer will
increase as will the length of their responses
• Responses will demonstrate critical thinking
supported by evidence or logic
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dBnuSUL0ymM
Equitable Response Opportunities
• The number of times teachers call on students
is directly related to the level of expectations
they have for them
• Teachers call on students when they have
confidence in their ability to answer a
question
• Teachers call on less students in whom they
have little confidence
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1W0Yrk3GZ_U
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Questioning
• Leveling questions is a good practice, it helps
students to stretch their thinking
• Rephrase questions to aid students understanding
• Give students clues rather than pass over them
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Questioning
• If students are only asked questions that
require low levels of intellectual involvement
they will tend to think accordingly
• Students who are given questions based on
higher levels of thinking will tend to think
more creatively
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Bloom’s Taxonomy
Knowledge
• Recall information
Comprehension
• Ideas are organized
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
Evaluation
• Take knowledge and apply it
• Identify reasons, causes or motives
• Produce original ideas and solve problems
• Make judgment about something
Bloom’s Taxonomy
Higher
Order
Thinking
Skills (HOTS)
Lower
Order
Thinking
Skills (LOTS)
Comprehension
Knowledge
Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CW8JQfjmhCE&feature=youtu.be
Personal Regard
•
•
•
•
Proximity
Courtesy
Touch
Personal Interest
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Proximity
• Proximity communicates value
• Provides the teacher an opportunity to
develop a bond with each individual
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Touching
•
•
•
•
Shake hands
High five
Thumbs up
Smile
Boynton & Boynton (2005) Educator's Guide to Preventing and Solving Discipline Problems
http://vimeo.com/41421052
Interactions that Facilitate High
Expectations: Personal Interest
• Incorporating students’ personal interests
into academics
• Noticing individual accomplishments and
important events in students' lives
• Interacting with students as individuals
Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. E. (2003). Looking in classrooms (9th ed.).
http://youtu.be/xNIJCs0U1PM
Expectations and Support
• Increase expectations without helping
students achieve success almost always leads
to frustration and failure
Feedback
• Affirm or Correct Response
• Praise Performance
• Give Reason For Praise
• Listen Attentively
• Accept and Reflect Feelings
Feedback: Grading Strategy
• What does an “F” really mean?
• Grading: A, B, C, and NY (Not Yet!)
communicates what is expected from students
Feedback with Families
• Effective teachers produce and share progress
reports and grades weekly with families and
students
• Reaffirms the teachers and families approach
to students learning
Porterfield & Carnes (2012) Why Social Media Matters
Feedback
• Beginning and ending every instructional
segment with a review of past learning and
the big picture
• Inspiring students to probe “why?” and “how
do you know that you know?”
• Requiring students to express their thinking
and learning through speaking, writing and
designing
Feedback
• Students need constant feedback on how well
they are performing
• Feedback is a two way proposition
High Expectations
Response Opportunity
Personal Regard
Feedback
Building Capacity
• When you leave today, what will you do with this
information?
• How will you share it with others in your district?
• When will you share it? (Timeline)
Note: If you are on the district leadership team, this
information will be useful in completing your district’s LASPDG
5 Year Plan
45
Let’s Take a Poll!
Please take a moment to answer
these post-questions regarding
your knowledge:
Questions?
Please use your chat pod if you have
questions related to this presentation
• You may email any questions to
Summer Whitmore [email protected]
Upcoming Webinars
*February 19 @ 10 am- Inclusive Practices
10 Steps to Implementing Effective Inclusive Practices: A
guide for Site Leaders http://connect.lsu.edu/ip10steps/
*February 26 @ 10 am- Data Based Decision Making
Data Discovery: Placement-Educational Environment (Ages
6-21) http://connect.lsu.edu/dbdmplacement/
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Creating a Classroom Culture of High Expectations