Teaching Writing
Tying it all together!?
Presented by: Annette Hendry
[email protected]
“We waste valuable time and energy
fussing about the “trait” camp versus
the “writing process” camp versus the
“writing workshop” camp. We're all
trying to do the same thing: help
students learn to write well. When
these three powerful ideas coexist in
writing classrooms, both students and
teachers win.” -Culham
The Writing Process
What is the writing process?
What are the steps in the
writing process?
What is the writing process?
A way of looking at writing
instruction that shifts the
emphasis from the finished
product to what writers think
and do as they write
What are the steps in the
writing process?
 Prewriting
 Drafting
 Revising
 Editing
 Publishing
 Choosing
a topic
 Gathering and organizing ideas
 Considering the audience
 Identifying the purpose
 Choosing a genre
 Writing
a rough draft
 Emphasizing content rather
than mechanics
Stamina and volume are
important here
 Rereading
for refining and
 Make changes
“Adding and subtracting time”
 Proofreading
to locate errors
 Correcting mechanical errors
 Publishing
writing in an
appropriate form
 Sharing finished writing with an
appropriate audience
Points to remember!
The writing process is not a linear
process – but recursive; with labeling
of the steps being useful for
identifying and discussing writing
What about the Six Traits?
The new standards document
evaluates writing based on the
six traits.
What are the six traits?
 Organization
 Word Choice
 Voice
 Sentence Fluency
 Conventions
 + Presentation
“How does knowing the writing
process help me teach the traits?”
Writing Workshop?
“So I understand about the
Writing Process and how it fits
with the traits….. Now what
about the Writer’s Workshop?”
What is “Writer’s Workshop”?
A organizational structure for
allowing the writing process to
happen in the classroom
setting. It replicates the
practices of professional writers
as they take a piece of writing
from conception to publication.
“The traits are the language of writing
“The six traits represent a language
that empowers students and
teachers to communicate about
qualities of writing.”
Ruth Culham
Writer’s Workshop
 Minilesson
 “Work
 Sharing
Writer’s Workshop
 Minilesson
Modelled Writing\Direct Teaching
 “Work
Students write independently
 Teacher conferences with individuals
and/or small groups (“Guided Writing”)
 Sharing
Reinforces or makes the teaching
point again
Minilesson components
Explicitly tell and show an example
Guided practice
Active Engagement
Using your Minilesson planning sheet
and a lesson from Lucy Calkins
Resource jot some notes for each
component of the minilesson.
“What is happening during each
Use Book 2 of your Units set to
search for instances where the traits
are covered.
 Pick any of the other units you wish to
also look for instances where the traits
are covered.
Ruth Culham:
“Think of the traits not as a set of
discrete lessons to be taught each
day, but a way of thinking , shaping
responses to writing, and talking
about the writing. The traits are the
writing process at the revision and
editing stages. They don’t stand alone
in the writer’s world; they shouldn’t be
taught in isolation; they shouldn’t be
portioned out by grade level.”
What about the standards
 Summative
 Formative
assessment to drive
Standards identify:
The end of grade level of achievement for:
 Writing strategies and behaviors
 Traits
Highlight a key word or phrase for each
bullet for:
1.Strategies and behaviours
Research shows writers
to write
Models of fine writing
in writing directly
relates to the amount of writing
and rewriting a person does.”
-Lucy Calkins
Culham, R. (2005) 6+1 Traits of writing the complete
guide for the primary grades. New York: Scholastic
Culham, R. (2003) 6+1 Traits of writing the complete
guide for Grades 3 and Up. New York: Scholastic
Calkins, L. et al (2003) Units of Study for Primary Writing:
A Yearlong Curriculum, Portsmouth: Heinemann,
Calkins, L. et al (2006) Units of Study for Grades 3-5,
Portsmouth: Heinemann,
Graham, S. (Ed) (2007) Best Practices in Writing
Instruction, New York: The Guilford Press