What is Matter? Created by: Mrs. Metivier’s 2nd Grade Class Teacher: Mrs. R. Metivier Grade: 2nd Subject: Science Standard: S2P1 Students will investigate the properties of matter and changes that occur in objects. a. Identify the properties of matter and changes that occur in objects. b. Investigate changes in objects by tearing, dissolving, melting, squeezing, etc. Directions: Use as a resource when teaching the standard above. What is matter? Matter can be a gas, solid, or a liquid. Gas is air. A solid is a hard shape. A liquid is water. Every thing is matter. Properties of solids A solid is one kind of matter. Like all matter, it takes up space and has mass. A solid is the only form of matter that has a shape of its own. Measuring solids You can measure solids with a ruler to see how long a solid is. You can also measure solids with a scale to see how much it weighs. Properties of liquid A liquid takes the shape of its container. Even though it takes its shape of its container it still has mass. Liquid is measured by milliliters. If you have one container and put it in a other container it is the same amount. Measuring Liquids You can measure the volume of a liquid. Volume is the amount of space a liquid takes up. We use cups and milliliters to measure liquids. Properties of Gas Like all matter, gas takes up space and has mass. A gas takes the shape of its container. A gas is the only kind of matter that always fills all the space inside a container. Measuring gas Gas can be measured. A balloon is an example of measuring gas. A balloon with air has more mass than a balloon without air. Cup in the water trick Even air takes up space! Try this trick! Take a paper towel and put it in the bottom of a cup. Turn the cup upside down and push it down in a bucket of water. Pull it straight up and look at the paper towel!...It’s dry!!!!!!!!!!!! Why? It’s because the air pushes the water out of its way. Explaining Mixtures of matter Matter can be cut and mixed . When solid matter is cut its shape changes, but its mass stays the same. Some mixtures, like Chex Mix, can be sorted out. Some mixtures, like cake batter, cannot be sorted back out . Cutting Matter When you cut bread it doesn’t change it’s form. It’s mass doesn’t change . You can cut a glue stick in half and its mass does not change. Changing the shape of matter If you have a rock and get a hammer and smash the rock the rock shape will be changed but not its mass. Play-dough can be changed to different shapes, but if the amount is the same the mass is the same. FREEZING WATER YOU CAN FREEZE WATER AND CHAGE IT BACK. A bottle of water can be put in the freezer and it will freeze. You can take it out of the freezer and it will melt. Heating Water When you heat water it will change into a gas. At first, you can see the steam, or water vapor. Then the water vapor spreads into the air and you cannot see it. Evaporation When the rain comes down and it dries up again, this is evaporation. A puddle is liquid water. The sun’s heat may cause the water in the puddle to evaporate or change to water vapor. I can melt the ice with the hair dryer until it disappears, or evaporates. Cooling water vaporCondensation When water vapor condenses, or the heat is taken away,… gas turns back to water. We put blue ice water in the cup and water drops formed on the outside of the cup, but it was clear. This water came out of the air. When the air around the cup cooled down, the water vapor turned back to water on the outside of the cup. It’s not blue so that proves that the water did not come from inside the cup. Reversible Changes In a reversible change, the matter can change back to the way it was before. Jell-O is a solid when it is cold, but a liquid when it warms up. Ice is a solid but when you add heat to it, it will turn back to a liquid. Irreversible changes Cooking can also cause irreversible changes. Cooking makes an egg change from a liquid to a solid. Dancing Raisins Experiment! Get a clear cup. Fill it half way up with water. Stir in two big spoonfuls of baking soda. Put a few raisins in the cup. Then pour in some vinegar and watch what happens!......They dance! The soda and vinegar makes bubbles that lift the raisins and then they POP and sink back down.