Learning to Communicate
Chapter Overview
1. Learning to Communicate
2. Learning to Listen
3. Learning to Think Critically
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Lesson Overview
•
How does the communication process work?
•
What are encoding and decoding?
•
What are communication cues?
•
What are barriers to effective communication?
•
Why is feedback important?
•
What are some steps to improve communication?
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Quick Write
Have you ever been in a situation where you
thought that someone just wasn’t listening to you?
What happened?
How did you think and feel?
What did you do?
Write a few sentences to describe your reaction.
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Communication Process
The Communication Process
From Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H., & Johnson, D. E. (2001). Management
of Organizational Behavior:
Leading Human Resources. Eighth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice-Hall, Inc., p. 301.
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Encoding, Channeling, Decoding
• Encoding turns a message into symbols that
have meaning for the receiver
• Channeling puts an encoded message into
medium of delivery
• Decoding translates the encoded message into
meaning for you, the receiver
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Encoding and Decoding
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Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Communication Cues
• Signals that accompany sender’s verbal message
• Nonverbal communication
• Cues may include:
–
–
–
–
gestures
facial expressions
eye behavior
movement
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
What communication cue is
expressed here?
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
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Barriers to Communication
NOISE
• External
Background noises, television turned on,
other people, telephone ringing
• Internal
Daydreaming, fidgeting, hunger,
sleepiness, anxiety
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Feedback
• Feedback is the receiver’s response to the
sender’s message
• Feedback can be positive or negative
• Feedback can indicate that your receiver got the
message and whether it was understood
• Feedback may indicate that the receiver needs
more information or clarification
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Importance of Feedback
Feedback closes the communication loop
MESSAGE
SENDER
FEEDBACK
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
RECEIVER
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Improving Communication
• Focus your message
Plan what to say; know your goals and audience
• Magnify the listener’s attention
Make the message relevant to the receiver’s point of
view
• Penetrate barriers
Use specific and concrete language
• Listen actively
Listen to understand meaning; hearing isn’t enough
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Review
• Communication—creation and sending of
information, from one person to another
• The communication process involves senders,
receivers, encoding, channeling, decoding, and
feedback
• Feedback helps the sender know if the receiver
got the message correctly
• Communication cues are nonverbal signals that
add to the message
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Review
• Noise is anything that interferes with communication
• Noise can be internal, in which the receiver distracts him or
herself
• Noise can also be external, in which outside distractions and
noises interfere
• Therefore, feedback is critical to ensure that noise has not
interfered with the message and that the receiver accurately
interpreted the sender’s meaning
• Feedback closes the communication loop, or process
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Review
The Steps to Improve Communication
• Focusing the message
• Magnifying the listener’s attention
• Penetrating barriers
• Active listening
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Summary
• How does the communication process work?
• What are encoding and decoding?
• What are communication cues?
• What are barriers to effective communication?
• Why is feedback important?
• What are some steps to improve communication?
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Next
• Done—the process of communication
• Next—how to be an effective listener
Chapter 1, Lesson 1
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