Ger und and infini tive verb phra ses When you have two verbs together: Some verbs are followed by the INFINITIVE form And some are followed by the GERUND form Like studying Economics but I would like to study Engineering next year. It is not always possible to know which verbs are followed by the gerund and which by the infinitive, often we have to simply try to remember these different verb structures. GE RU ND / INF INI TIV E After to sell / selling to the retailers the customers can buy the products. Selling/ to sell abroad usually takes longer for the products to arrive. It is easy to understand/ understanding Stores offer discounts to increase/ increasing sales. Neg ative form : Use NOT Gerund and infinitive form the negative with NOT - It's important not to be late for this meeting. - I suggest not arriving late for this meeting. After adje ctive s Use the GERUND or INFINITIVE ? It is easy to understand/ understanding He was surprised to see/ seeing how people responded to his offer. I was pleased to receive/ receiving your letter yesterday Use the INFINITIVE: He was surprised to see how people responded to... I was pleased to receive your After letter yesterday adje ctive Some common adjectives are: s Glad – interesting – surprised – disappointed – relieved – happy – sad – curious – kind – difficult - delighted After nou ns I've got some homework to finish/finishing. Use the GERUND or INFINITIVE ? This company has a couple of jobs to offer/offering you. After nou ns This company has a couple of jobs to offer you. I've got some homework to finish. Use the INFINITIVE We use the infinitive when we want to say what we are going to do with the noun or how we are going to use it. Af ter ob je ct s When asking or telling another person to do something: Use Let/make/help: WITHOUT “TO” Would like – prefer – instruct – order – expect – allow – remind – encourage -force – persuade – warn – beg Common verbs used to tell/ask people what to do: -I would like you not to use the telephone for personal calls. - My boss makes us work very hard - I don't let my secretary leave work early - My boss will help us finish the project on time. To expr ess PUR POS E To express the purpose, the reason why you do something. What do you use? Infinitive or gerund? Make one sentence using correct form: -Simon is studying Economics. He wants to help his father in his business. -Simon is studying Economics to help his father in his business. Why is he studying? To help ….. After Prep ositi ons Use the GERUND FORM or INFINITIVE? Eg: We succeeded in persuading/ to persuade his boss to give him a pay rise. Eg: They appologised for not arriving/to not arrive on time. After Prep ositi ons Use the GERUND FORM Eg: We succeeded in persuading his boss to give him a pay rise. Eg: They appologised for not arriving on time. Common Verb+preposition combinations: Apologise for / succeed in / look forward to / be good at / be interested in / insist on / have difficulty in / be used to / get used to / give up / find out by Use the rerund after phrasal verbs: give up, go on, put off ... etc. When the verb is the subje ct of a sente nce Selling/ to sell abroad usually takes longer for the products to arrive. Smoking/to smoke is bad for you. Advertising/ to advertise is getting more and more difficult for marketers Ger und after cert ain verb s: Admit, suggest, attempt, avoid, consider, delay, finish, go, involve, keep, mention, miss, postpone, practise, propose, recommend, report, risk, dislike, enjoy, (don't) like, (don't) mind, love, hate = to express likes and dislikes in general. Infin itive after cert ain verb s Afford, agree, decide, expect, aim, help, hope, arrange, need, learn, decide, demand, fail, intend, manage, offer, plan, prepare, promise, refuse, train, want, would like. Verbs + object Advise, allow, ask, cause, enable, expect, invite, lead, permit, persuade, remind, teach, tell, trust, urge, use, warn Either forms can be used with the followi ng verbs without changi ng the meani ng: Begin, start, continue, prefer I prefer buying CDs on the internet I prefer to buy CDs on the internet I started teaching in 2001 I started to teach in 2001 The mea ning chan ges a little ... = to express something more specific = to express something in general I like to study early in the morning after a strong coffee otherwise I don't really enjoy studying. I like studying Economics. gerund and infinitiv e forms can be used after these verbs BUT they have differe nt meanin NEED FORGET STOP TRY REMEMBER Dif fer en t me ani ng s 1) We stopped selling the old designs. What did we stop? Selling (you stop doing the action) 2) We stopped to get a coffee. Why did we stop? To get .... (reason) 3) They tried to convince the students to buy... (= make an effort/attempt to do something) Try convincing the students it won't be easy... (experiment to see if something works, a suggestion to solve a problem) 4) I forgot to do it (= did not remember) I'll never forget seeing the Taj Mahal. (= you did something and will always remember) Remember to send me that email tonight. (= don't forget) I remember starting school at primary school (= I have this memory) I need to go as soon as the bell rings. My car needs cleaning. (this is a passive form) (you need to do something – you = subject) ( = My car needs to be cleaned – car = object ) We need to be good at innovating/innovate to retain customers. They advised the company setting/to set up an online auction Can we meet in order speaking/to speak about distribution? It's essential investing/to invest in new operations. We can't risk ignoring/to ignore this share tip. Building/to build up long term relationships isn't easy. The product is so popular that it's difficult meeting/to meet demand. I've managed negotiating/to negotiate a better deal. I'll never forget seeing/to see the Grand Canyon for the first time. We need to be good at innovating to retain customers. They advised the company to set up an online auction Can we meet in order to speak about distribution? It's essential to invest in new operations. We can't risk ignoring this share tip. Building up long term relationships isn't easy. The product is so popular that it's difficult to meet demand. I've managed to negotiate a better deal. I'll never forget seeing the Grand Canyon for the first time. My computer needs repairing/to repair/ to be repaired I ran home because I had forgotten turning off/to turn off the oven. Did you remember talking/to talk to your boss about the problems in your office today. Tomorrow he will not be there. I tried finishing/to finish on time in order to please my boss. Our boss persuaded Megan not leaving/not to leave the company. I was accused of not saying/ not to say the truth in front of the judge. KEY My computer needs repairing/ to be repaired I ran home because I had forgotten to turn off the oven. Did you remember to talk to your boss about the problems in your office today. Tomorrow he will not be there. I tried to finish on time in order to please my boss. Our boss persuaded Megan not to leave the company. I was accused of not saying the truth in front of the judge.