Chapter #9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
In reference to the
Articles of
Confederation:
The Articles are “a
shadow without
substance”—George
Washington
Chapter #9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
Systems of Government
System
The Articles of
Confederation
What level has
power?
Shared (National
Federal System
and State)
Page 1
Unitary System
National
Confederate
System
State
Chapter #9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 2
Setting up a Government
-As war in the colonies began, the “new”
nation had to find a way to organize itself
-John Dickinson was the primary author of
the Articles of Confederation
-The A.O.C. established a weak national
government, where states had sovereignty
-States held elections every year—as a way
to avoid abuses of power
What the Articles Did
-Created a loose alliance of states
-This national Congress had the power to:
1. Declare War
2. Raise an Army and Navy
3. Make Treaties
Chapter #9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 3
(continued)
4. Borrow Money
5. Establish Post Office
6. Conduct business with Native
Americans
The Weaknesses of the Articles
-The Continental Congress had no power
over individuals or state governments
-The Articles lacked a court system to handle
disputes amongst states
-States had one vote in congress, meaning
that larger states had less representation in
congress than did smaller states
-The C.C. had no power to collect taxes,
leaving them broke and powerless
Chapter #9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 4
The Articles Create Problems
-Needed 9 of 13 votes to pass a law (~70%)
-Needed 13 of 13 votes to amend the A.O.C.
-National laws had to be enforced by states
-The national government had a vast debt
-States argued over boundaries, currency and
trade
-Overseas the reputation of the U.S. suffered
-Britain still had troops in U.S. territory
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 5
The Land Ordinance of 1785
-The Land Ordinance
of 1785 was passed to
help deal with the
surveying, sale and
settling of the
Northwest Territories
-The Northwest
Ordinance (1787)
made provisions for
governing the new
territories
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
The Land Ordinance of 1785 (CONT.)
-Prior to 1783, settlers merely claimed land
in the West
-Disputes (often violent) became common
amongst settlers
-As a result, and to raise money, the United
States Congress passed the Land
Ordinance of 1785
-It stated:
1. Land would be surveyed and divided into
townships
2. Each township would be 6 miles square
Page 6
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
The Land Ordinance of 1785 (CONT.)
3. Each township would contain 36 sections
4. Each section would be 1 mile square,
containing 640 acres
5. Congress stipulated that land would be
sold at auction for a minimum of $1.00
per acre
6. The revenue from the sale of one section in
each township would be used to fund the
creation of a public school
Page 7
-To attract land speculators, Congress
required speculators purchase one whole
section, dividing it for sale later
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 8
Taylor County
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 9
Range and Township
-Every “cell” (township) in the grid is
identified by a township and range
-The range number identifies how many
cells the property is to the east or west of a
starting point or principal meridian
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 10
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Range and Township
-The legal description of range is “R18E”
-The township (or tier) number identifies
how many cells the property is north or south
of a starting point or the baseline
-Only northern
townships/tiers can
exist in Wisconsin as
the baseline is the
southern boundary of
the state
Page 11
-The legal description
of township is
“T32N”
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Range and Township (CONT.)
-Where range and township/tier intersect
creates a “cell” or a township
-Sections (1 of 36) are arranged in a
boustrophedonic manor “as the cow plows”
-This was done for ease of surveying
Page 12
Chapter
Chapter#9
Further Division
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
-Each section is divided into quarters
(quadrants), classified by the four principal
directions (Southwest—SW)
-Quarters are ½ mile by ½ mile or 160
acres
Page 13
Chapter
Chapter#9
Further Division (CONT.)
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
-Each quarter is divided into quarterquarter sections, classified by the four
principal directions (Southwest—SW)
-Quarter-quarters are ¼ mile by 1/4 mile or
40 acres
Page 14
Chapter
Chapter#9
Further Division (CONT.)
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 15
-Each quarter-quarter is divided into half
sections, classified by either North or South
-Half quarter-quarter sections are ¼ mile
by 1/8 mile or 20 acres
Chapter
Chapter#9
Creating a Nation
NOTES
The Articles of
Confederation
Page 16
Legal Description
-Descriptions are stated and read from
smallest parcel to largest, however best
interpreted from largest to smallest (the last
descriptor to the first)
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The Articles of Confederation