UNIT 7
Staged Vs Continuous
Representation
Both CMMI representations contain the
following model components.
•Process Areas
•Specific Goals
•Specific Practices
•Generic Goals
•Generic practices
1
CMMI Model Representations
Process improvement can be approached
from either the perspective of
• organisational maturity (pertains to a set of
process areas)
• process area capability (pertains to a set of
practices that map to a single process area)
Further, there is an equivalence between the
approaches so that process area capability
can be equated to organisational maturity.
2
CMMI Process Areas – Staged Maturity Level 5
(Optimising)
Representation
Organisational Performance Management
Causal Analysis & Resolution
Maturity Level 4
(Quantitatively Managed)
Maturity Level 3
(Defined)
Maturity Level 2
(Managed)
Requirements Management
Project Planning
Project Monitoring & Control
Measurement & Analysis
Configuration Management
Process & Product QA
Supplier Agreement Management
Organisational Process Performance
Quantitative Project Management
Requirements Development
Technical Solution
Product Integration
Verification
Validation
Organisational Process Focus
Organisational Process Definition
Organisational Training
Integrated Project Management
Risk Management
Integrated Teaming
Integrated Supplier Management
Decision Analysis & Resolution
Organisational Environment for Integration
3
Staged Representation
Provides a single rating of the maturity of an
organisation’s processes
Permits comparisons between organisations by
the use of maturity levels
In order for an organisation to be at a particular
level of maturity it must have satisfied the goals
of all the process areas associated with that
level of maturity and all of the goals of the
processes associated with any lesser levels of
maturity.
4
Continuous Representation
Enables comparisons across and among
organisations on a process area by
process area basis.
It is a process area which receives a
capability rating.
An organisation might have a number of
process areas at different levels of
capability
5
• Process area capability pertains to a set of practices relating
to a single process area.
• Organisational maturity pertains to a set of process areas
across an organisation.
Staged – Maturity assigned to
the project or organisation
ML5
ML4
ML3
Continuous –Capability assigned to a
single process area
or a set of process areas
2.5
2
1.5
1
ML2
PA1
PA2
PA5
PA19
PA12
0.5
Initial: Failed to be at ML2
0
6
Maturity levels provide a recommended order
for approaching software process improvement.
Maturity levels organise the process areas
(each maturity level consists of a predefined set
of process areas). Each maturity level stabilizes
an important part of an organisation’s
processes.
The maturity levels are measured by the
achievement of the specific and generic goals
that apply to each predefined set of process
areas.
7
Maturity Levels
Optimizing
Quantitatively
Managed
Defined
Managed
Initial: Failed to be at ML2
8
Maturity Level Characteristics
Failing to be at ML2
Processes are chaotic. Success is largely dependent on
the effort and skill of individuals (not on processes) who
act as a driving force in the organisation. Projects often
exceed budget and schedule.
Such an organisation can produce products and
services that work but this is despite the lack of
processes not because of them.
Tendency to over commit, abandon processes and not
be able to repeat previous success.
9
Maturity Level Characteristics
Maturity Level 2: Managed
An organisation has achieved all specific and generic
goals of the group of maturity level 2 process areas.
Projects now manage their requirements and ensure
that processes are planned, performed, measured and
controlled. The status of projects is now visible to
management at defined points.
Stakeholders are involved and committed.
Success can be repeated because there is now a
reliance on process as opposed to people.
10
Maturity Level Characteristics
Maturity Level 3: Defined
An organisation has achieved all specific and generic
goals of the group of maturity level 3 and level 2
process areas.
Processes are well characterised and understood and
described in standards and procedures.
The organisation has established standard processes
for consistency across the organisation and these can
be tailored by projects in order to create ‘defined’
processes.
11
Maturity Level Characteristics
Maturity Level 4: Quantitatively
Managed
An organisation has achieved all specific and generic
goals of the group of maturity level 4, level 3 and level 2
process areas.
Crucial subprocesses (which contribute greatly to
overall process performance) are controlled using
statistical and other quantitative techniques.
Quantitative objectives can therefore be set for these
subprocesses. Special causes of process variation can
be identified and corrected to prevent future occurrence.
Process performance is understood in statistical terms 12
and managed accordingly.
Maturity Level Characteristics
Maturity Level 5: Optimizing
An organisation has achieved all specific and generic
goals of the group of maturity level 5, level 4, level 3 and
level 2 process areas.
Processes are continually improved based on a
quantitative understanding of common causes of variation.
Improvement is brought about by both incremental and
innovative technological means.
Specific quantitative process improvement objectives for
standard and defined processes are established and
revised to reflect changing business objectives. These are
used to gauge the success of any deployed improvement 13
Distinctions
At ML4 special causes
of processes variation
areaddressed. At ML 5
it is common causes
which are of concern.
ML 4 processes may
produce predictable
results without
meeting objectives.
ML 5 the mean of
process performance
is moved in an attempt
to meet objectives.
The process is planned,
performance
is managed
Optimizing
Quantitatively
Managed
Defined
Managed
Initial
Not a CMMI
Maturity level
The predictability of
Process performance is
quantitative at ML4 but
only qualitative at ML3
The scope of application
of the process
descriptions, standards
and procedures. At ML2
the procedures might be
different in each instance
of a process (in different
projects) but at ML3 a
projects procedures are
tailored from standard
organisation wide
processes and are more
detailed.
14
The staged model and the continuous model
have generic practices in common. However,
the staged model utilizes only those practices
from GG2 and GG3. It does not utilize any
practice of GG1.
How then are ML4 and ML5 possible?
15
Equivalent Staging
Equivalent staging allows a maturity level
in the staged representation to be
awarded from the designated capability of
process areas in the continuous
representation.
16
CL1
Requirements Management
Measurement & Analysis
Project Monitoring and Control
Project Planning
Process & Product Quality Assurance
Supplier Agreement Management
Configuration Management
Decision Analysis & Resolution
Product Integration
Requirements Development
Technical Solution
Validation
Verification
Organisational Process Definition
Organisational Process Focus
Integrated Project Management
Organisational Training
Risk Management
REQM
MA
PMC
PP
PPQA
SAM
CM
DAR
PI
RD
TS
VAL
VER
OPD
OPF
IPM
OT
RSKM
CL3
CL4
CL5
ML2
ML2
ML2
ML2
ML2
ML2
ML2
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
ML3
Organisational Process Performance OPP
Quantitative Project Management
QPM
ML4
ML4
Organisational Performance Man.
Causal Analysis and Resolution
ML5
ML5
OPM
CAR
CL2
17
Interpretation of the diagram
The coloured areas in the CL columns indicate target profiles that
are equivalent to maturity levels in the staged representation
• To be equivalent to maturity level 2 in a
staged representation, the process areas to
the left of green sector must have satisfied
capability levels 1 and 2 in the continuous
representation
• To be equivalent to maturity level 3 in a
staged representation, the process areas to
the left of green and blue sector must have
satisfied capability levels 1, 2 and 3 in the
continuous representation
18
Maturity Level 2 Equivalence
Staged
Maturity
Levels
Optimizing
The process areas of the staged maturity
level 2 must be located in the continuous
model and they must be evaluated to be at
CL2
2
1.8
Quantitatively
Managed
1.6
1.4
1.2
Defined
1
0.8
Managed
0.6
0.4
REQM
MA
PMC
PP
PPQA
SAM
CM
0.2
Initial
0
19
Interpretation of the diagram
The coloured areas in the CL columns indicate target profiles that
are equivalent to maturity levels in the staged representation
• To be equivalent to maturity level 4 in a
staged representation, the process areas to
the left of green, blue and red sector must
have satisfied capability levels 1, 2 and 3 in
the continuous representation
• To be equivalent to maturity level 5 in a
staged representation, all of the process
areas must have satisfied capability levels 1,
2 and 3 in the continuous representation
20
Q&A
Q. Why are ML4 and ML5 present in the Staged Representation but CL4
and CL5 are absent from the Continuous Representation?
• It is the execution of OPP and QPM and their selective application to
other process areas that brings about quantitative management.
• It is the execution of CAR and OPM and their selective application to
other process areas that brings about optimisation.
• If CL4 and CL5 existed in the Continuous Representation (as they did
in v1.2 of the model) it would imply that any and every process area
could be quantitively managed and optimised. Since these concepts
should only ever be selectively applied to other process areas, CL4 and
CL5 have been removed in V1.3 of the model. This does not mean that
the concepts of quantitative management and optimisation have
disappeared. The execution of OPP, QPM, CAR and OPM will in effect
bring about the same effect.
• Consequently process areas in the staged representation and now the
continuous representation can only be assessed up to Generic Goal 3.
The higher level concepts of quantitative management and optimisation
are present only through execution of OPP, QPM, CAR and OPM.
21
Table: Comparison of Capability and Maturity Levels
Level
Continuous
Representation
Capability Levels
Staged
Representation
Maturity Levels
Level 0
Incomplete
Level 1
Performed
Initial
Level 2
Managed
Managed
Level 3
Defined
Defined
Level 4
Quantitatively
Managed
Level 5
Optimizing
22
Target & Achievement Profiles
DAR
PP
OPD
PPQA
VAL
VER
CM
Capability
Level 1
Capability
Level 2
Capability
Level 3
23
Download

Staged Vs Continuous Representation