Life Cycle Models for
High-Technology Projects
Applying Systems Thinking to Managing
Projects
Russell D. Archibald
Fellow PMI and APM/IPMA, PMP, MSc
PMI-São Paulo 4th International Seminar
Sáo Paulo, Brazil, December 9-10 2004
Purpose of My Presentation

To enhance your ability to:
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
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Develop the best life cycle model for your
projects
Document your Project Life Cycle
Management System/PLCMS
Improve your PLCMS through systems
thinking
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
2
Presentation Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Categorizing Projects
Project Life Cycle Models & PLCMS
Hi-Tech Project Categories & Their Life
Cycles
Improving the PLCMS
Conclusions
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
3
1. Categorizing Projects
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Projects:
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Are the common denominator for all
aspects of project management
Exist in many sizes & types
Produce many different products & results
Can be classified in many different ways
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
4
Recommended Major
Categories
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Aerospace/Defense
Business &
Organizational
Change Projects
Communication
Systems Projects
Event Projects
Facilities Projects
Dec. 9-10 2004
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Information
Systems
International
Development
Media &
Entertainment
Product/Service
Development
Research & Dev.
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
5
2. Project Life Cycle Models &
PLC Management Systems
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Many life cycle models are in use
They portray a project as an overall process
or system
Their purposes include:
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To enable all to understand overall process
To capture best experience, enable improvement
To relate roles, responsibilities, systems and tools
to all elements of the project
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
6
Generic Life Cycle: 4 Phases
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Concept
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Definition
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Feasibility, development, demonstration, design
prototype, quantification
Execution
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Initiation, identification, selection
Implementation, realization, production &
deployment, design/construct/commission,
installation and test
Closeout
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
7
Generic Life Cycles



Apply to any project
Too broad to be very useful, practical
Need to be tailored to the project
category…
… And key environmental factors
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
8
3 Parameters to Work With:
1.
2.
3.
Number & definition of phases & subphases
Their inter-relationships: sequential,
overlapping, repeated
Number, definition and placement of
key decision points
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
9
Identify Deliverables: Each
Phase and Sub-Phase
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Documents related to the project:
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Documents related to the product:
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Objectives, scope, plans, schedules, reports,
authorizations, work orders, etc.
Specs, drawings, product cost, reports, etc.
Physical products or results:

Mock-ups, models, prototypes, test articles,
tooling, equipment, software, facilities, materials,
etc.
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
10
Defining Decision Points
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Key events/milestones – ‘gates’ – at
start & end of a phase or sub-phase
Decisions typically authorize project
manager & team to:
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Complete current phase, start next
Revise objectives, scope, schedule
Re-plan, re-start, repeat previous work
Terminate or put project on hold
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
11
Deliverables & Decision Points
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Decisions are often made based on
contents or results of key deliverables
Therefore these two elements are
closely linked
You can’t make good decisions without
adequate information
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
12
Documenting a Project Life
Cycle Management Process

Define the life cycle:
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Select the life cycle model to be used
Name phases, sub-phases decision points
Establish inter-relationships among them
Portray the result: flow chart, narrative
Specify authorizing documents:
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Purpose & levels of approval authority
For initiation & major changes
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
13
Documenting PLCMS (Cont’d)
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Identify key roles & define
responsibilities
Identify major deliverables by phase
Specify issue escalation procedures
Specify differences for:
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Major vs minor projects, or
Other project classes within a sub-category
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
14
3. Hi-Tech Project Categories
& Their Life Cycles
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4 (of 10) basic hi-tech categories:
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Communication Systems
Information Systems
Product & Service Development
Research & Development
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
15
Hi-Tech in Other Categories
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Defense/Aerospace:
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Facilities:
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Very advanced, specialized life cycles prescribed
by DOD & NASA
Very mature, specialized life cycle models
Hi-tech projects within programs in these and
other categories can be placed in one of the
preceding 4 hi-tech categories
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
16
Two Types of Hi-Tech Life
Cycle Models
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Predictive:
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Waterfall, Prototyping, Rapid Application
Development/RAD, Incremental Build,
Spiral
Adaptive:
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Adaptive Software Development/ASD,
Extreme Programming/XP, SCRUM
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
17
Predictive Life Cycle Models
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Waterfall
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Prototyping
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Linear ordering phases, sequential or overlapping,
no phase repeated
Functional requirements and physical design specs
are generated simultaneously
Rapid Application Development/RAD

Based on an evolving prototype that is not thrown
away
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
18
Predictive LC Models (Cont’d)

Incremental Build
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Decomposition of large development effort
into a succession of smaller components
Spiral
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Repetition of the same set of life-cycle
phases such as plan, develop, build, and
evaluate until development is complete
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
19
Adaptive Life Cycle Models
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Adaptive Software Development/ASD:
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Mission driven, component based, iterative
cycles, time boxed cycles, risk driven,
change tolerant
Extreme Programming/XP

Teams of developers, managers, and
users; programming done in pairs; iterative
process; collective code ownership
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
20
Adaptive LC Models (Cont’d)

SCRUM (as in rugby)
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Similar to above adaptive models with
iterations called “sprints” that typically last
30 days
Defined functionality to be met in each
sprint
Active management role throughout
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
21
XP Resources
www.extremeprogramming.org/index/html
www.industriallogic.com
www.xprogramming.com
www.objectmentor.com/home
http://c2.com/cg/wiki?ExtremeProgrammin
gRoadmap
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
22
Impact of Environment on Life
Cycle Model Selection

Project environment is of primary
importance in selecting a LC model for a
given project category:
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Organizational characteristics
Familiarity with involved technology
Competitive demands (schedule, other)
Other
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
23
Software Life Cycle Models
- Examples
Source:
“The Project Manager’s Guide to Software
Engineering’s Best Practices”
ISBN 0-7695-1199-6
IEEE Computer Society Press order #
BP01199
Chapter 7, “Software Life Cycle Process
Management”
IEEE/EIA Standard 12207 Life Cycle Processes & Roles
Simplified Project Life Cycle
Model - Software
Waterfall Life Cycle Model
- Software
Incremental Life Cycle Model
- Software
Incremental Waterfall
Development Model - Software
Evolutionary Life Cycle Model Software
Spiral Model of Development Software
NASA’s Project Life Cycle Model
Stage-Gate Life Cycle Process
TM
Source: Cooper et al 2001 see www.prod-dev.com
4. Improving the PLCMS
Document the integrated project life
cycle model
Document & describe the PLCMS
Re-engineer the integrated process
1.
2.
3.
Apply systems thinking: TOC

4.
5.
Implement the improvements
Repeat these steps as required
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
34
Re-Engineer the PLCMS
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Identify system constraints, gaps &
weaknesses
Relate poor results to constraints &
identify benefits to their removal
Look for speed bumps, accelerators
Redesign the PLCMS to remove
constraints
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
35
Implement Improvements


Obtain approval to conduct tests and
analyses
Plan, approve & execute the
improvement project to implement the
revised PLCMS
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
36
Rational Unified Process/RUP
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Process framework for

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Software development
Software customization
Also a ‘process product’ developed and
maintained by IBM Rational:
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Integrated with a suite of SW tools
Available on CD-ROM or via Internet
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
37
Six Best Practices in RUP
Develop SW iteratively
2.
Manage requirements
3.
Use component-based architectures
4.
Visually model SW
5.
Continuously verify SW quality
6.
Control changes to the SW
For info:
www.maxwideman.com/papers/acquisition/intro.htm
1.
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
38
Apply Theory of
Constraints/TOC
(Source: Leach 2000)
Identify system constraints
2.
Decide how to exploit system
constraints
3.
Subordinate all else to above decision
4.
Elevate the system constraints
5.
Does the new constraint limit output?
Yes: Back to step 1 No: Beware inertia
1.
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
39
5. Conclusions
Project categories are important:
1.
Based on end results best way (?)

Sub-categories also needed

Further classification within categories
and sub-categories needed
(see http:/projectcategories.org
-- and join our team!)

Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
40
5. Conclusions
(Cont’d)
Project life cycle models must be
designed for each category/subcategory
2.



Dec. 9-10 2004
Define and inter-relate phases & subphases
Identify deliverables for each of these
Define & relate decision points
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
41
5. Conclusions
(Cont’d)
Project Life Cycle Management System
PLCMS must be well defined:
3.


Dec. 9-10 2004
For each project category/sub-category
Enables application of systems thinking to
improve the process
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
42
5. Conclusions
(Cont’d)
Two types of life cycle models are
used for high-technology projects:
4.
Predictive

Adaptive
With several variations within each of these

Selection depends on the key environmental
factors affecting the project
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
43
5. Conclusions
Systematic improvement of PLCMS is
achieved through:
5.
Re-engineering the total system
Application of TOC to total PLCMS or to a
given phase


6.
(Cont’d)
Such improvement must be a major
project management goal in every
organization
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
44
Further Reading

Archibald: Managing High-Technology
Programs and Projects, 3rd ed 2003

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
Chapters 2 and 3
Download this paper
18 additional references given in the
paper
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
45
Thanks for Listening



Questions?
Download this paper and/or slides at
www.russarchibald.com
go to ‘Author:Recent Papers’ &
select title of paper
Contact me:
[email protected]
Dec. 9-10 2004
Russ Archibald PMI-Sao Paulo
4th International Seminar
46
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Life Cycle Models for High-Technology Projects

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