I. The Integrative Model
An Inductive strategy: Used to teach combinations of
concepts within an organized body of knowledge,
and to practice critical thinking
II. Organized Bodies of
Knowledge
The historical foundations of this model is
based on the work of Hilda Taba, which
concludes that knowledge construction is
organized in memory in the form of schema.
Much of the content we teach in schools
exists in the forms of organized bodies
of knowledge.
Differences Between the Inductive
Model and the Integrative Model
• Inductive Model:
– Use to teach a specific concept, generalization,
principle and/or academic rule
• Integrative Model:
– Used to teach combinations of these forms of
content within an organized body of knowledge
(topic)
– Students practice critical thinking while finding
patterns, forming conclusions & hypotheses & by
justifying their thinking
Examples of Topics that are Organized Bodies
of Knowledge
Subject
Topic
Social Studies
Compare climates, cultures &
economies of 3 countries
Life science
Compare different animal phyla and
the characteristics of each
Health
Compare well-balanced and poorly
balanced meals
Art
Compare art forms of different
historical periods
Literature
Compare the works of Faulkner,
Fitzgerald & Hemingway
Early Elementary
History
Compare different community helpers
Music
Compare Baroque, Romantic &
Classical music
Compare northern & southern colonial
settlements
III. Goals of Integrative Model
Content:
– Not to teach specific facts, concepts. etc., but
to have students understand the
relationships among them
Thinking Skills:
– To develop critical thinking by finding
patterns, forming explanations, making
generalizations
– Documenting thinking with facts
Teacher’s Role in
Integrative Model
• To understand that learning is
constructed by the learners, not
transmitted by the teacher
• To facilitate student discussion and
analysis
• To keep lesson & discussion moving
• To select good examples & forms of
information for students
• To become skilled at questioning
IV. Planning with the
Integrative Model
• Identify Topics
• Specify Objectives – both Content &
Thinking
• Prepare Data Representation: The Data
Comparison Matrix–
– Decide on data sources for students
Around The World
World
Countries
S. Africa
Japan
Ireland
Germany
Iceland
Tanzania
Weather
Major
Animal Life
Landforms
Culture
V. Implementing Lessons using
the Integrative Model
Phase
Description
Phase 1
Gather data using the matrix as a
guide
Phase 2
Describe, compare & search for
patterns
Phase 3
Note & explain similarities &
differences
Phase 4
Hypothesize outcomes for different
conditions
Phase 5
Generalize to form broad
relationships
VI. Modifications of Integrative
Model to use with Younger Students
• Modify the way information is presented
• Begin with more traditional ways of
questioning (T S, later move into
T
S
S
S discussion)
• Younger students need to focus more on
looking for patterns, making comparisons,
and describing them
• Teachers will do more guiding to help
students articulate ideas & thoughts
VII. Assessment
Measuring students’ understanding of organized
bodies of knowledge is more complex than
measuring the understanding of single concepts.
Through the use of essay or multiple choice type
assessments, teachers must develop a pool
items that will measure deep understanding of
content and critical-thinking abilities.
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The Integrative Model - AssessmentandStudentLearning3