Review! 1. What are the 5 Pillars of Islam? 2. Who is the founder of Islam? 3. Rank the religions of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam from oldest to youngest. 4. What is the difference between Sunni and Shia Muslims? 5. Do you think Muslims should be allowed to practice aspects of sharia law in the United States if they choose to? Eastern Religions Thanksgiving! • What does your family do for Thanksgiving? • Do you eat any food diffused from other cultures? • In terms of Thanksgiving, do you think you have become assimilated into American culture? Hinduism Very different • Very old (3500-4000 years old) • No central founder • No main prophet • Main holy book, but not only one—The Vedas • Polytheistic • Cultural Hearth—Indus River Valley, India • Ethnic religion • 97% of Hindus live in India • Branches of Hinduism tend to focus on one God, but can worship others too • Main gods: Vishnu, Brahma, and Siva Brahma • God of creation • Created the universe • Work now complete? Siva • God of war and destruction • Also destroys imperfection within people to make them better Vishnu • The preserver of the universe • He/she keeps harmony between Brahma and Siva • Most popular God in Hinduism today The Caste System • In Hinduism, different groups have different places in society • Hierarchical- Some groups are above others • Bottom LevelUntouchables- Do jobs considered dirty, like picking up trash • ReincarnationOnce you die, you are reborn again. If you lived a good life, you move up a caste. If a bad life, you move down a caste Buddhism Overview • Universal Religion • 2510 years old • Founder of religion: Buddha • Hearth: Northern India • No real god: Don’t care how Earth was created How it started • In 563 B.C., Siddhartha Guatama was born a Hindu lord. • Lived in luxury (servants, palaces, etc.) • Took 4 trips out of his house, and saw suffering for the first time (sick, old, poverty, death) • Left civilization, lived in the forest for 6 years and meditated • Came back Buddha, The Enlightened One 4 Noble Truths—Don’t Write • All living beings must endure suffering • Suffering, which is caused by bad thoughts, like wanting more possessions or being jealous, leads to reincarnation • Goal of existence is to escape suffering and reincarnation into Nirvana • NirvanaEnlightenment, complete happiness • Nirvana reached by following the Eightfold Path (8 rules for being a good person) Buddhist Practices • Non-violence • Meditation • Poverty (don’t care about wealth, only causes suffering) • Charity Branches • Mayahana Buddhism— Emphasize helping others and teaching • Theravada Buddhism— Emphasizes meditation and introspection Dalai Lama—Don’t Write • Leader of Tibetan Buddhism • Most famous Buddhist today • Cannot live in Tibet, because China took it over (refugee in India) • Won Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 Syncretism • The combining of different beliefs • As Buddhism spread, it combined with different religious beliefs, especially in Japan Review! 1. Why did Buddha break away from the Hindu faith? 2. How does someone reach Nirvana? 3. How is Buddhism different from Hinduism? 4. What is reincarnation? 5. What is the cultural hearth for Hinduism? Buddhism? 6. How did Buddhism diffuse to other religions? What is this called? 7. How is Hinduism different from Christianity?