Constitution and Bill of Rights
• On May 25, 1787 (Constitutional
Convention starts), 55 delegates
representing 12 of the 13 states met
in Philadelphia, with Rhode Island
not participating.
• A.O.C not worth saving
• Characteristics of Delegates at
Constitutional Convention:
1. All men
2. All white
3. Mostly wealthy
4. Mostly older (42 or older)
5. Mostly well-educated
businessmen
Constitution and Bill of Rights
• ISSUES to be determined at
Convention:
1. Representation in
government
2. Slavery
3. Economics
The public knew what was
going on, but the delegates
kept the details quiet.
(James Madison’s
notebook)
GEORGE WASHINGTON CHOSEN TO
LEAD THE CONSTITUTIONAL
CONVENTION
Constitution and Bill of Rights
VIRGINIA PLAN
-JAMES MADISON
- PRESIDENT, COURTS,
AND 2 HOUSE
CONGRESS
-REPRESENTATION
BASED ON POPULATION
- LARGE STATES GET
MORE VOTES
- FAVORED BY
LARGE STATES
NEW JERSEY PLAN
GREAT
COMPROMISE
-AKA CONNECTICUT
COMPROMISE
- TWO HOUSE
LEGISLATURE:
- HOUSE – BASED ON
POPULATION
- SENATE – EQUAL
REPRESENTATION
- PRESIDENT & COURT
SYSTEM
-WILLIAM PATERSON
- ONE HOUSE
CONGRESS
- EACH STATE HAS
EQUAL
REPRESENTATION IN
CONGRESS
- PROMOTED STATE’S
RIGHTS
- EQUAL VOTES AMONG
THE ALL THE STATES
Constitution and Bill of Rights
• 3/5 COMPROMISE
• COMPROMISE:
Every 5 enslaved
persons would
count as three free
persons. (or 3/5 of
a whole person)
Constitution and Bill of Rights
• The Commerce and Slave
Trade Compromise
• Southern states agreed that
Congress could regulate
trade between the states, as
well as with other countries
• Northern states agreed that
Congress could NOT tax
exports, nor could it interfere
with the slave trade before
1808.
Constitution and Bill of Rights
• The Electoral College Compromise
– addressed how the President would be chosen.
– Group of people named Electors select the president
and vice president
Constitution and Bill of Rights
• After 4 main compromises and several other debates, a
committee was chosen to write the plan of government
• Virginian Gouverneur Morris wrote the majority of the
document we call the Constitution (even though James
Madison is considered the “Father of the Constitution”
• The delegates signed the Constitution on September 17,
1787.
• They decided that the Constitution would become law
once 9 of the 13 states had ratified, or agreed to it.
• They didn’t realize the process would be so long and
difficult.
Opening Activity (Put in with your notes)
• 1. How did the Great Compromise appease both
the large states and small states?
• 2. What are some common characteristics of the
delegates at the Constitutional Convention?
• 3. How do we know what happened at the
Constitutional Convention if they did not allow
the public to attend?
• 4. When did the delegates sign the Constitution?
• 5. What were the three main issues that needed
to be resolved at the beginning of the
Constitutional Convention?
The Federalist (Federalist Papers)
• Constitution would create FEDERALISM,
government in which power is divided between
the federal (national) government and states.
• Federalist Papers – 85 essays written by
Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John
Jay. (Essay #10 – Federalism)
– #84 – Federalists agree a Bill of Rights need to be
added – BUT only after states approve constitution
Federalist Papers Clip
Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists
Constitution
• On June 21, 1788 New Hampshire became
the 9th state to ratify the Constitution, and
made it law. The last, Rhode Island ratified
it in 1790, and we became the United
States of America. (N.C. in 1789 was 12th)
• Constitution became the basic law of the
United States and the highest authority of
the nation
• “preserve, protect and defend, the
Constitution of the United States.”
Sections of the Constitution
• Preamble
– states the Constitution’s purpose
– The people of the United States have the right and
power to govern themselves.
• The preamble lists 6 goals for the United States
government. They are:
– To form a more perfect union
– To establish justice
– to insure domestic tranquility
– to provide for the common defense
– to promote the general welfare
– to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and
our posterity
Sections of the Constitution
• After the preamble, the Constitution is broken
into 7 parts:
• Article 1 – Outlines lawmaking powers of
legislative branch (House and Senate)
• Article 2 - defines and describes the powers and
limits of the President and the executive branch
• Article 3 - defines and describes the powers of
the Supreme Court and other federal courts,
meaning the judicial branch of our government
Sections of the Constitution
• Article IV - describes and defines how the states
and federal government must respect the laws
and rulings of each another
• Article V - describe the process for changing, or
amending, the Constitution
• Article VI - discusses debts and treaties of the states,
and establishes “the supremacy clause”, defining the
Constitution and federal laws as supreme when in
conflict with those of the states.
• Article VII - defines how and when the Constitution
will be approved and take effect.
Download

Constitution and Bill of Rights