Sentence Structure What is a Clause? A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. subject verb • Some students work in the food pantry because they care about helping hungry people. subject verb There are two kinds of clauses, independent and dependent. Independent Clause An independent clause expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence. • Some students work in the food panty. Dependent Clause A dependent clause does not express a complete thought and cannot stand alone as a sentence. • because they care about helping hungry people Subordinate Clauses A dependent clause, also known as a subordinate clause, can be joined to an independent clause to add to the complete thought that the independent clause expresses. • Students also make bag lunches that are distributed at a shelter. Simple Sentences A simple sentence contains one independent clause and no dependent clauses. Remember that even a simple sentence can be quite elaborate. Each of the following sentences has only a single independent clause. • Shawn tutors. • Benita teaches young children acrobatics after school. Compound Sentences A compound sentence contains two or more independent clauses an no dependent clause. The clauses in a compound sentence must be closely related in thought. • Shawn tutors, and he helps students learn math. Independent clause Independent clause Independent clauses can be joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction or by a semicolon. • Some children have no books, and volunteers can hold book drives for them. • Some children have no toys; volunteers can collect donated toys for them. Coordinating Conjunctions For Or And But Nor so Yet Don’t mistake a simple sentence with a compound predicate for a compound sentence. No punctuation should separate the parts of a compound predicate. • The Newcomers’ Club wrote a clever script and then filmed it. Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Most dependent clauses start with words like when, until, who, where, because, and so that. Such a clause might tell when something happened, which person was involved, or where the event took place. Dependent Clause Independent Clause • When we visited, Mrs. Smith shared her memories of working in a shipyard during World War II. Independent Clause Dependent Clause • Mrs. Smith was a photographer until she was drafted. Compound-Complex Sentences A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. • WhenDependent our school celebrates Earth Day, we clause Independent clause sign up for environmental projects, and we try Independent clause to complete them all in one day. Kinds of Dependent Clauses There are 3 kinds of dependent clauses 1. Adjective clauses 2. Adverb clauses 3. Noun clauses Adjective Clauses An adjective clause is a dependent clause used as an adjective. An adjective clause modifies a noun or a pronoun. It tells what kind, which one, how many, or how much. Modifies noun Student volunteers read stories to the children (who were in the daycare center.) Adjective clause Adjective Clauses Adjective clauses are usually introduced by relative pronouns. Relative Pronouns Who Whom Whose That which The story, which made them laugh, is about a monkey. Notice that a clause that begins with “which” is set off with commas. Adverb Clauses An adverb clause is a dependent clause used as an adverb. It modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. An adverb clause might tell where, when, how, why, to what extent, or under what conditions. Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinating conjunctions such as… Adverb Clauses As That If While Because Where Even though When Than As if so since Modifies adj. They were happy because they were going to the zoo Adverb clause Adverb Clause An adverb clause should be followed by a comma when it comes before an independent clause. When an adverb clause comes after an independent clause, a comma may or may not be needed before it. • When the field trip ended, the volunteers took the children back to the daycare center. • The volunteers took the children back to the daycare center when the field trip ended. Noun Clauses A noun clause is a dependent clause used as a noun. Like a noun, a noun clause can serve as a subject, a direct object, an indirect object, an object of a preposition, or a predicate noun. Noun clause serving as subject • What frustrates many physically challenged people is the problem of getting around. Noun Clauses Noun clause serving as a direct object • Volunteers know that physically challenged people do not want special treatment. Noun clause serving as an indirect object • Christopher will tell whoever is volunteering the locations of the elevators. Noun Clauses Nouns clauses are introduced by words such as… That How When Where Whether Why What Whatever Who Whom Whoever Whomever Which whichever If you can substitute the word something or someone for a clause in a sentence, it is a noun clause.