Elements of
The story of Luna, an energy bar
This is a Luna bar wrapper; she
is making an argument.
An Argument, broken into
O Claims: statements of fact, opinion, or belief that
form the backbone of arguments
Reasons: the reason for making the claim—the
larger issue
Assumptions/Warrants: underlying beliefs that
connect the claim and the reasons
Evidence: “backing” in the form of examples,
statistics, studies, etc.
Qualifiers: words or phrases that limit the claim
so that it is as precise as possible (few, often, in
these circumstances, typically, etc.)
Luna claims that
O She is a “whole nutrition bar for women.”
O She is 70% organic.
O She has the “core 4.”
O She is delicious.
O She multitasks.
O She is an “active sponsor of the Breast
Cancer Fund.”
Luna’s reason for being:
O Women “crave a snack that does more than
merely get [them] through the day. It needs
to nourish, curb hunger, AND taste great…”
Luna’s assumption:
O Women need special food designed just for
them. Sorry, guys.
O Snacking is a good thing: “Feel the power of
positive snacking.”
Her evidence:
O Nutrition facts!
O Ingredients!
O Seal of organic certification!
O Allergen information?
Luna is not big on qualifiers. She is big on
promises. She also cares about what you think
about her and how you feel.
Argumentative Appeals:
O Ethos: ethical appeals—these support the
credibility, moral character, and goodwill of the
argument’s creator
O Pathos: emotional appeals—that which stirs our
emotions and reminds us of deeply held values
O Logos: logical appeals— “facts,” which might
come in the form of firsthand observations,
interviews, surveys, etc., and secondhand
evidence from authorities, the testimony of
others, statistics, print/online sources
Luna’s ethos:
O Luna is an “active sponsor of the Breast
Cancer Fund and its efforts to eliminate the
environmental and preventable causes of
the disease.”
O “While other nutrients are also essential for
human nutrition, the CORE 4 nutrients are
listed because of their importance to many
women seeking to maintain their health.”
O Who inspires you? Women of Luna…
Luna’s pathos:
O Notes from the women of Luna
O Nutrition should taste good and be good for
O Organic = from the earth
Luna’s Logos:
O “Nutrition” Information!
O Ingredients!
O Lunsford, Andrea A. The St. Martin’s
Handbook. Boston: Bedford St. Martin’s,
2011. Print.
And Luna can be a purse.