Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Section 12.1 The Menu
• There are several factors to consider when
developing a menu.
• In addition to considering the necessary
factors, a chef must choose from among
different menu types.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
The Importance of the Menu
• The menu determines:
• the customers the restaurant will attract
• the restaurant’s layout and equipment
• the skills workers must have
• the type and number of supplies
menu
A listing of the food choices a
restaurant offers for each meal.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
The Importance of the Menu
• Influences on a menu:
• target audience and
what prices they
will pay
• type of foodservice
operation
• location, culture,
and eating trends
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• The most popular types of menus include:
• fixed
• cycle
cycle menu
fixed menu
A menu that offers the
same dishes every day for
a long period of time.
Glencoe Culinary Essentials Chapter 12 Creating Menus
A menu that is used for a set period of
time, such as a week, a month, or
even longer. At the end of this time
period, the menu repeats daily dishes
in the same order.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• The most popular types of menus include:
• à la carte
• semi-à la carte
à la carte
semi-à la carte
A menu that offers each food
and beverage item priced
and served separately.
A menu with the appetizers
and desserts priced
separately.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• The most popular types of menus include:
• table d’hôte
• prix fixe
prix fixe
table d’hôte
A menu that lists complete
meals, from appetizers to
desserts and sometimes
beverages, for one set price.
Glencoe Culinary Essentials Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Offers a complete meal for a
set price. With a prix fixe
menu, the customer chooses
one selection from each
course offered.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• The most popular types of menus include:
• meal-based
meal-based
A menu that shows dishes available
for a single meal.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• In family-style and hotel
restaurants, you will find
foods listed as à la carte,
semi-à la carte, and table
d’hôte.
• A banquet is an example of a
table d’hôte menu, except
everyone is served the
same meal.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• Breakfast menus may be à la carte
or continental.
continental menu
A breakfast menu that
provides mostly a
selection of juices,
beverages, and
baked goods.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• Lunch menus usually
provide a wide
selection of
à la carte items.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Types
• Dinner menus usually
include the same food
categories as lunch, but
are more complex.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Section 12.2 Menu Planning and Design
• Foodservice professionals have developed
several principles to plan successful menus.
• Once the menu is planned it needs to be
organized to appeal to the customer.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Basics
• A clear and accurate menu will help your
operation sell its food and meet customers’
expectations.
• Menus may be planned by chefs, dieticians,
foodservice directors, and main offices of chain
restaurants.
How could a menu help meet your
expectations of a restaurant?
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Basics
• Balance on the plate includes:
• placement
• serving size
• number of foods
• proportion
proportion
The ratio of one food to
another and to the plate.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Basics
Give examples of the truth-in-menu
guidelines listed.
Guideline
Example
Brand Names Must
Be Represented
Accurately
Examples might include Hunt’s Ketchup, Green Giant Frozen
Vegetables, and Butterball Turkey
Dietary/Nutritional
Claims Must
Be Accurate
Low-sodium or fat-free foods must be prepared to keep these
characteristics; nutritional claims must be supported with
statistical data
Food Preservation
Must Be Accurate
Terms such as fresh, frozen, chilled, dehydrated, dried,
bottled, and canned must be used correctly to describe menu
items
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Basics
Give examples of the truth-in-menu
guidelines listed.
Guideline
Example
Quantity Must
Be Accurate
If a sirloin is 16 ounces, for example, the menu must state that
this is the weight prior to cooking
Ingredient Locations
Must Be Accurate
If Dover Sole is on a menu, for example, then the sole must
actually be from Dover, England
Quality or Grade
Must Be Accurate
When listing a quality or grade for meats, dairy products,
poultry, and vegetables or fruits, they cannot be substituted
for a different quality when preparing the dish
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Basics
Give examples of the truth-in-menu
guidelines listed.
Guideline
Example
Cooking Techniques
Must Be Accurate
If broiled swordfish is on your menu, for example, you cannot
serve the swordfish baked
Pictures Must
Be Accurate
For example, apple pie à la mode must be apple pie served
with ice cream
Food Product
Descriptions Must
Be Accurate
If shrimp cocktail is described as “four jumbo shrimp on a bed
of crushed ice with a zesty cocktail sauce and lemon wedge,”
it must appear and be presented exactly this way
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Basics
• Menus need to change
from time to time
because costs of
ingredients may change.
• Menu descriptions
should be appealing,
short, and
understandable.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Style and Design
• A menu’s cover design,
color, style of lettering,
paper weight, and
descriptions all
influence how
customers feel about
the restaurant.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Style and Design
• Three types of menus:
• printed
printed menu
Any form of printed menu list that is
handed to customers as soon as they
sit down.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Style and Design
• Three types of menus:
• menu board
menu board
A handwritten or printed menu on a
board on a wall or easel.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Style and Design
• Three types of menus:
• spoken
spoken menu
A server states what foods are
available and the prices of each.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Categories
• Generally, menu categories are listed in the
order in which they are eaten:
•
•
•
•
appetizers
soups
salads
cold and
hot entrées
• sandwiches
• accompaniments
• desserts
• cheeses and
fruits
• beverages
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Section 12.3 Pricing Menu Items
• The final step in creating a menu is setting
the prices.
• Choose the correct pricing to help make
your business a success.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Menu Pricing
• Menu prices are
influenced by:
• labor
• competition
• customers
• atmosphere
• location
• supply costs
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Pricing Methods
Explain each of the pricing methods that
are listed.
Method
Explanation
Factor Method
Uses a pricing scale based on a percentage of the good and
non-food costs needed to operate a restaurant successfully
Markup-on-Cost
Method
To find the selling price of an item, take the food cost of the
item and divide it by the desired food cost percentage
Contribution
Margin Method
Uses a general contribution of customers to costs besides
food for running a kitchen; add the contribution margin per
guest to an item’s standard food cost
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Pricing Methods
Explain each of the pricing methods that
are listed.
Method
Explanation
Average Check
Method
Prices an item near an average check total that you would like
each customer to spend
Competitors’ Pricing
Method
Charges approximately what the competition charges for
similar menu items
Psychological Pricing
Method
Bases menu item prices on how a customer is likely to react to
the price
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Pricing Methods
• Different pricing methods carry different
levels of risk.
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Chapter 12 Creating Menus
Pricing Methods
• Track how well menu items are selling:
• Review your records to see how well each
menu item sold.
• Decide which items to keep on the menu and
which to take off, or which to modify in terms
of price or ingredients.
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