IMPORTANT When viewing this slideshow the top slides are the most recent – the work we are currently doing. The slides at the bottom are work or activities we have completed in the past. Persuasive devices • emotive language e.g. ‘strong’ adjectives • deliberate ambiguity e.g. probably the best, perhaps, maybe • “dare you disagree!” e.g. Clearly,… Surely, … Obviously, … Everyone know that … • rhetorical questions e.g. “Are we expected to …?” “How will …?” • turning opinion into truth e.g. “The fact is …” “The real truth is …” Always ask yourself – Is it … FACT or OPINION? Persuasion language features • Present tense verbs (except in historical arguments) • persuasive devices • the language of argument …because _______. Consequently, …_______. This results in …_______ The reason that _______ is that… • ‘structural signposts’ to your main points There are three major arguments … First and foremost … My second important point is … Finally … To sum up … Elaborating a point. Make your point clearly, in a sentence. elaboration reasons/arguments point Background detail or explanation necessary to make the case. Examples to back up the case e.g. For example… For instance… This is obvious in the case of… Planning persuasive writing. BRAINSTORM Spidergram _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Your ideas, perhaps on a Point + Evidence Chart Point + Persuasive Language Chart point evidence point persuasive language _____ _____ _____ ORGANISE into arguments • • use a bullet for each main point on the prongs note any elaboration Who? What? Intro Why? When? Where? point elaboration point elaboration point elaboration End sum up/restate Each pronged bullet gives you one paragraph (or section) in your writing. Persuasive writing needs: Audience • • think about he audience for the genre how much do you know about them (age, interests, prior knowledge)? Use what you know about your audience to decide • • how much background detail is needed appropriate level of formality Think about your audience when you plan the layout. How can you make it easy for them to read? Where should you text sit along the continua? informal ----------------------------------------------- formal personal ----------------------------------------- impersonal The position on each continuum may be different. Impersonal texts are sometimes written informally, and personal texts may be formal. Persuasive writing needs: Purpose • • • • to attract the attention of the audience to gain trust to argue the case clearly to convince the audience The genre of text can also affect the purpose. • • • an eye-catching title and/or opening a clear opening statement of your point of view main points clearly set out, e.g. each paragraph start with a topic sentence. A topic sentence sums up what the paragraph is about. • • information, reasons, examples to back up each point summary of main points at the end (perhaps restating the case in some way). Persuasion Text Argues the case for a point of view. The argument needs: • Clear points • Any necessary elaboration (explanation) Persuasion Text These texts are often ‘persuasion texts’… advertisement pamphlet from pressure group or political party magazine article Persuasion “letter to the editor” poster for flier travel brochure book blurb WALT: Write an assisted Persuasive Essay. Possible Topics page 1 Too much money is a bad thing. People should go to jail when they abandon their pets. Kids should get paid for good grades. Kids should have less homework. We need more women in power. We should teach etiquette in schools. Short hair is better than long hair. Racial slurs should be illegal. I'm old enough to babysit. Recycling should be mandatory for everyone. Children should be required to read more. We shouldn't have to pay for Internet access. All students should study abroad (overseas). Cell phones should never be used while driving. Bullies should be kicked out of school. Parents of bullies should have to pay a fine. The school year should be longer. School days should start later. All students should wear uniforms. Students should be allowed to pray in school. Children should be able to choose their bedtime. At least one parent should work from home. People should carpool more. We should allow pets in school. I'm old enough to stay at home alone. Schooling should be free. Uniform and textbooks should be free. School tests are not effective. We should all give back to our communities. Every New Zealander should learn to speak Maori. Every New Zealander should learn to speak English. Video games can be educational. We need more holidays. Aliens probably exist. WALT: Write an assisted Persuasive Essay. Possible Topics page 2 Athletes are paid too much. Kids should be able to vote. We need a military draft. Kids should get paid for grades. School should take place in the evenings. Country life is better than city life. City life is better than country life. Life is better than it was 50 years ago. Some health foods are really junk foods. Some junk foods are really health foods. We should return to horse and buggy transportation. Medical testing on animals is immoral. Single sex schools provide a better education. Students should have an adult with them during the first year of driving. Year round school is a bad idea. We can change the world. Skateboard helmets should be mandatory. Cars should come with breathalyzers. Kids under 15 shouldn't have Facebook pages. Teachers should be paid more. There should be one world currency. We should provide food for the poor. The government should impose household trash limits. Children should be paid for doing chores. We should populate the moon. Every family should have a natural disaster survival plan. Parents should talk to kids about drugs at a young age. Dogs make better pets than cats. The moon is as important as the sun. What to do… Choose a Topic Close to Your Heart If you have a choice, choose a persuasive speech topic which you feel very deeply about. That way, the persuasive power in you won't have to be coerced out, but it will express itself naturally. Go for a topic which rouses you to speak up. Then decide on the point which is going to be the conclusive remark of your speech. Be specific about what point you want to drive through the whole speech to save yourself from writing a speech which beats around the bush. Once you are decided on the prime thought you want to drive across, you can begin the process of writing the speech. Imagine this thought to be a castle in the air, under which you have to put a strong logical foundation through your speech, so that your audience can scale it to understand your point of view. Research & Brainstorm Research is the soul of a persuasive speech. Read what all you need to read to know the core subject of speech. If you need facts and figures, dig for them through research. Get somebody who is as excited about the topic, as you are, to brainstorm with you. Make the library your home and clear out all the basic ideas that you need to understand to present the main topic clearly. Pen down your thoughts and points which emerge from the research and discussion. Jot down as many facts and points you can to support your argument. Persuade Yourself First To be persuasive in a speech, you yourself need to be convinced about the soundness of your ultimate thought or inference. To be convinced, you need to be sceptical (disbelieving) before and jot down as many points against your arguments as you can. Then decimate (destroy) every one of those points, which go against your argument. If you can overcome your own doubts, you will certainly sound more convincing. Begin Writing & Create an Intricate Logical Argument When you think you have enough firepower in the form of sound logic facts and a rock solid rationale to back them up, begin writing your speech. Firstly introduce the subject to the audience and talk about why you feel deeply about it. Follow this up with your argument supporting your point of view. Attack Counter Arguments & Address Loopholes Once you are done with the 'for' arguments, bring up every counter argument that goes against the thought and eliminate them, one by one. Any loop holes that you think others may point out, must be addressed here. When you are done with that, you can move towards the conclusion and summarize your entire argument to reach your final point. Let humour and sparkling wit be sprinkled throughout to keep the audience interested throughout the speech. These are some comments we looked at after our own debate regarding the wearing of School Uniform. Our Class Debate School Uniform Arguments For and Against Wearing School Uniform FOR AGAINST Shoes are not too big. Perhaps parents buy too big. Wear shoes with pride. Uniform shoes are too big and clunky . Support our school for interschools. So other schools know where we come from. Like interschool soccer. Buy second hand uniform, or borrow off friends/family. Much cheaper second hand. Everyday you know what you are going to wear. Takes less time. School rule is if playing contact sports you wear mufti. And you get taught at production to sew. Wear school uniform down street and school gets noticed for good things. Could user a washing machine, dryer or deodorant to cover the smell. Makes you look neat and tidy easy to recognise. Everyone wearing the same clothing not missed-matched. They are too expensive. Some people can’t afford the cost of uniforms. Can choose what you are going to wear the night before. When playing sports they rip and get damaged. Walking down the streets if you do something wrong you will be reported on if you are wearing uniform. If you don’t have two pairs of uniform then your uniform gets smelly/stinky, and too expensive to buy 2 pairs. If all wearing the same things you don’t show individuality and could get teased if wearing uniform differently. And could get teased. Students explore the issue of school uniforms, developing arguments around it from different points of view. Discussion: School Uniforms People have different opinions about whether or not school uniforms are a good idea. You need to decide whether you agree or disagree with wearing a school uniform. You must not ‘sit on the fence’. List all your ideas and/or reasons why you have decided for or against school uniform. Lets share our ideas…. A debate! “Yippee” said Kathleen COME ON OVER Sometimes we want to talk someone into thinking about things the same way we think about them. For example, you might try to persuade your parents to let you stay up late to watch a movie on TV. When we are trying to persuade someone we have to think of some good reasons for them to agree. You are going to pretend that you want to have a friend come over to your place after school. You have to try and convince your parents that it would be a good idea. You will need to try to think of some really good reasons for having your friend come to your house. Try to think of things your parents might not like about having your friend over and what you could say to them about those things. You can have a few moments to think about what you might say to your parents and how you might say it. Then you can imagine that I am your parent and tell me what you would say. Allow time. Now imagine that I am your parent. Try to persuade me with your good reasons, and remember that I might not want to have your friend come over after school. Room 8 Students – Roll played this scene in pairs. One was the child (the persuader). The other took the roll of the parent (to be convinced). Introduction Middle/paragraphs Conclusion GENERAL FEEDBACK: Was that only 4-5 children could convince their parent to have a friend over. Overall, the children from Room 8 enjoyed the activity because it gave them an opportunity to ‘think’ before going to ask parents for something. THINK: Pros and Cons of the event.