A Prophet and His World The Arabian Peninsula was a crossroads of trade between the Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Basin. Meant that any religious ideas developed there would spread quickly to the rest of the world. A Prophet and His World Muhammad and His Message Muhammad – Born into an important merchant family around 570 CE. Became successful Merchant interacting with Jews and Arab converts frequently. 610 CE Muhammad had a spiritual transformation that caused him to reject polytheism and affirm his faith in one god who he called ALLAH. Said Allah would reward the righteous and punish the wicked. Said he received instructions from the archangel Gabriel tell instructing him to spread his faith to others. A Prophet and His World 650s – Revelations of Muhammad had been received and voiced and written down by his followers. They were compiled in The Quran – Compilation of Muhammad’s teachings which reveal a powerful, poetic message of faith and understanding of Allah’s wishes for the world. Authoritative foundation for Muslim doctrine and social organization. Hadith – Muhammad’s own sayings Sharia – Islamic Law Combined to help people better understand the Muslim faith. A Prophet and His World Muhammad’s Migration to Medina Mecca elite became nervous when Muhammad began preaching against excessive wealth and polytheism, and preaching in favor of service to the poor and charity. Forced out of Mecca with his followers (the umma) to Medina in 622 CE which marked the beginning of the Islamic calendar. As his community increased, Muhammad began to be recognized as the final prophet. He recognized Jesus as a prophet and acknowledged the Jewish Yahweh and Christian God as the same god as Allah! Islam in Arabia 630 CE – Followers of Islam attacked and conquered Mecca and forced inhabitants to adopt Islam. Built Mosques Established the Five Pillars of Islam Acknowledgement that there is one god (Allah) and Muhammad is his prophet. Necessity of praying to Allah daily while facing Mecca Observation of a month of prayer and fasting during Ramadan Almsgiving to the poor and destitute Pilgrimage to Mecca Islam in Arabia Jihad Some later followers of Islam took this on as an additional sign of faithfulness. Jihad means “struggle” and is usually interpreted as a personal spiritual and moral fight against evil and unbelief. Sometimes extended into physical war (Modern Terrorism???) The Expansion of Islam Caliph – Deputies of Islam that follow Muhammad after he died and served as the leaders of Islam. Expanded beyond Arabia into Byzantine and Persian Empires and eventually into India, North Africa, and Iran and Iraq. The Expansion of Islam The Abbasid Dynasty Dynasty that took control of the caliphate and ruled Islam from headquarters in Baghdad. Like the Persian, Roman, and Han empires they had an excellent road system that allow for effective communication and administration Fell to the Mongols in 1258 CE Economy and Society of the Early Islamic World Economy New crops grown throughout the region using new methods Crop rotation, fertilization, and irrigation Rice, sugarcane, wheat, vegetables (spinach, artichokes, eggplants) Increased food supplies lead to increased Urban growth. Lead to textile industries Paper production! Leads to increase in written materials and education Economy The formation of a Hemispheric Trading Zone Innovations in road construction and maritime travel aided Islam economy Used Triangular sail to travel quickly across the Mediterranean Complex banking system allowed for long-distance trade. Use of loans and checks. Economy and Society The Changing Status of Women Women had some Freedoms Inherit property, divorce husbands, engage in business However they were still subordinate to men. Male family members in charge of women’s social and sexual lives Men could have as many as 4 wives Veiling of Women and household seclusion Comes from Mesopotamian and Persian traditions As Islam spread to other regions it picked up more patriarchal traditions and different interpretations of the Quran which lead to more restrictions in women’s rights. Islamic Values and Cultural Exchanges The Arabic language holds a privileged position as the only true language of the Quran. Nevertheless, as Muslim missionaries spread the word of Islam through the teachings of the Quran. They allowed many pre-Islamic traditions to be retained by the affected cultures. The Formation of an Islamic Cultural Tradition Sharia – Body of civil and criminal law in Islam Madrassas – Schools that promoted unity in education and understanding of Muslim law and theology. As Islam spread to other regions many of those regions maintained hold of own cultural traditions and blended them with Muslim traditions. Islamic Values and Cultural Traditions Islam and Cultural Traditions of Persia, India, and Greece Just as these cultures adopted Muslim ideas, so too did the Muslims adopt the ideas of these cultures. India - Algebra, trigonometry, and geometry were developed by Muslims using Hindi numerals. Greece – Medicine and science based on Greek study of anatomy and physiology.