DO NOW (3 min.)
In what ways do students struggle with
argumentative thinking, planning, and
writing?
Objectives
0 TWBAT identify and explain the components
of a Toulmin essay
0 TWBAT create exemplar models in the
Toulmin style
0 TWBAT score sample essays in accordance
with the Toulmin Rubric
What is Toulmin?
0 Toulmin Model: a method of developing,
organizing, and supporting an argument
0 Developed by Stephen Toulmin, a British logician
and philosopher
0 Primary Vocabulary for the Toulmin Model
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Claim (& Clarification)
Premise
Evidence
Warrant
Objection & Reply
Structure of the Toulmin Model
Claim
Premise
Premise
Objection
Evidence
Evidence
Reply
Warrant
Warrant
The Claim
0 Definition: The position or claim being argued for;
the conclusion of the argument (comparable to a
thesis statement).
0 Three Basic Types of Claims:
0 Fact*: Claims that argue about a definition or
whether something is a settled fact
0 Judgment/Value: Claims involving opinions,
attitudes, and subjective evaluations of things
0 Policy: Claims advocating courses of action that
should be undertaken
Sample Claims
Fact*: The death penalty as used in the United States
has not been an effective deterrent of crime.
Judgment/Value: The use of civil disobedience during
the Civil Rights struggle was an effective and necessary
means of swaying public opinion.
Position: The private ownership of automatic and semiautomatic weapons in the United States should be
banned.
Claim vs. Topic
Rate the following claims on a scale of 3, 2, or 1
(3 being an exemplar).
1) Bullying happens in schools.
2) School uniforms improve student learning.
3) Our city should build a children’s museum on
the east side to raise interest in science and
art.
4) The effects of UVB on skin have been
researched extensively.
The Clarification
• Definition: A more specific explanation of the claim
that could do the following:
– Includes a transition (To clarify, In other words, More
specifically)
– Explains the shady terms in the claim
– Provides a reason(s) for the legitimacy of the claim
Example:
Claim: In order to eliminate excessive waste at Tindley,
we should organize an “Eco-Friendly Council.”
Clarification: By council, I mean a group of scholars who
would promote eco-friendliness in the school through
class challenges and recycling initiatives.
Creating Examples with an
Exemplar
1. Sit with your co-planner or grade level team.
2. Pull up your first Summative Essay Prompt.
3. On the handout, create sample claims and
clarifications appropriate to each score in the
Toulmin rubric.
Example: 9th Grade Unit 1 Summative Essay Prompt
Pick one of the Puritan values. Argue whether that belief still
exists in some form in our society today, and whether you think
it’s appropriate for our times. Your evidence should come from
our Puritan texts and your own knowledge of laws/practices in
our schools, churches, businesses, etc. today.
Structure of the Toulmin Model
Claim
Premise
Premise
Objection
Evidence
Evidence
Reply
Warrant
Warrant
The Premise
0 Definition: sub-point of the main argument; a reason to
support the claim (comparable to a topic sentence)
0 Claim: Our school should add a computer technology
class.
0 Premise 1: Having a computer technology class would
prepare students for future employment.
0 Premise 2: Many students are very skilled on
computers; having this class would help them explore
their strengths and interests.
0 [*More premises may be necessary depending on the
depth of the claim and the nature of the assignment.]
Identifying the Claim and
Premises
In the following clip, character Phil Dunphy
from Modern Family (humorously) makes a
claim and supports it with a series of premises.
Watch the following clip and identify:
0 The Claim
0 3 Premises
Modern Family’s Phil Dunphy: Cool Dad
Creating Examples with an
Exemplar
0 On the handout, create sample premises
appropriate to each score in the Toulmin
Rubric.
Structure of the Toulmin Model
Claim
Premise
Premise
Objection
Evidence
Evidence
Reply
Warrant
Warrant
The Evidence
0 Definition: the “proof” for the premise (must be
observable and/or measurable).
* Each premise requires its own evidence.
0 Evidence must also be reliable and/or reasonable.
0 In a research paper, it must be cited or widely accepted
as fact (as in a researched class assignment).
0 In an on-demand essay, it should be provable and
reasonable (as in an Interim Essay).
The Evidence
0 Claim: Our school should add a computer
technology class.
0 Premise: Having a computer technology class
would prepare students for future employment.
0 Evidence: Approximately 75% of jobs today
incorporate technology to some degree (Smith 50).
0 Evidence: For example, if a student wants to be a
mechanic, they will use computers to run
diagnostics before they begin repair work.
Structure of the Toulmin Model
Claim
Premise
Premise
Objection
Evidence
Evidence
Reply
Warrant
Warrant
The Warrant
0 Definition: The connection between the evidence and the
premise or overall claim (comparable to an explanation of the
evidence’s purpose in supporting the premise and/or claim).
0 Claim: Our school should add a computer technology
class.
0 Premise: Having a computer technology class would prepare
students for future employment.
0 Evidence: For example, if a student wants to be a mechanic,
they will use computers to run diagnostics before they
begin repair work.
0 Warrant: This shows that even jobs that are considered
more “manual labor” are utilizing technology these days.
Creating Examples with an
Exemplar
0 Create sample evidence statement
appropriate to each score in the Toulmin
Rubric.
0 Create sample warrants appropriate to each
score in the Toulmin Rubric.
Organizing the Body
Paragraph
Example A:
Example B:
0 Premise
0 Evidence 1
0 Warrant 1
0 Evidence 2
0 Warrant 2
0 (Concluding Stmt.)
0 Premise
0 Evidence 1
0 Evidence 2
0 Warrant 1
0 Warrant 2
0 (Concluding Stmt.)
* These are just two possibilities of many, and as students achieve higher levels of
mastery, they should be able to further manipulate the components to meet the
needs of their argument.
Structure of the Toulmin Model
Claim
Premise
Premise
Objection
Evidence
Evidence
Reply
Warrant
Warrant
The Objection/Reply
Paragraph
0 Objection Definition: Potential
0 Reply Definition: Response to
counter-arguments to a claim
(should include evidence and
warrants, just like any other
body paragraphs)
an objection (should include
evidence and warrants, just
like the other body
paragraphs)
• Many people believe that recycling
is too expensive and timeconsuming. (follow w/
evidence/warrant)
• In the long run, not recycling will
actually cost tax payers more
money. (follow w/
evidence/warrant)
• Others have expressed that
students should be able to use
physical violence as a means of
defending themselves. (follow w/
evidence/warrant)
• If students respond to violence
with violence, a cycle will develop
in which everyone gets hurt.
(follow w/ evidence/warrant)
A word of warning…
0 Toulmin is a model, but it is not a “plug-it-in” formula.
0 Poor Sample:
0 (Premise>) First, our school should have vending machines
because it will make students feel better. (Evidence>) Many
students say they like having snack alternatives to cafeteria food.
(Warrant>) This shows that students will feel better if they have
vending machines. (Evidence>) Also, most students get hungry
later in the day. (Warrant>) Having something to snack on later
will make them happier.
0 With a new partner, brainstorm how you will reteach this student
to properly use the premise, evidence, and warrant.
Essay Paragraphs/
Sections
The Rubric
Essay Section Components
Essay Section Component
Elements
Scores
Essay Samples
0 In small groups, use the full Toulmin Rubric to score a
sample Interim.
0 6th Grade
0 7th Grade
0 9th Grade
0 10th Grade
Reflection
0 What obstacles do you anticipate
occurring while teaching the Toulmin
model to your scholars?
0 How can you combat those obstacles?
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Teaching The Toulmin Model - Tindley Accelerated Schools