Today – Week 8
Informative presentations
Specific Purpose and Central
Idea statements
Ethical public speaking
The introduction, body, and
conclusion
Developing an effective outline
Critiquing a presentation
Public Speaking Basics
“The human brain starts
working the moment
you’re born and never
stops until you stand up
to speak in public.”
- George Jessel
How is public speaking
similar to everyday
conversation?
How is it different?
The Communications Process
What are the three
basic types of
presentations we do?
What are the four
ways we generally
deliver speeches?
What are the four
ways we generally
deliver speeches?
Impromptu
What are the four
ways we generally
deliver speeches?
Scripted
What are the four
ways we generally
deliver speeches?
Memorized
What are the four
ways we generally
deliver speeches?
Extemporaneous
Individual vs. Group
Presentations …
What’s different?
What qualities do we
associate with an
effective presentation
and presenter?
“According to most studies,
people’s number one fear is public
speaking. Number two is death.
Death is number two.
Does that sound right? This means
to the average person, if you go to
a funeral, you’re better off in the
casket than doing the eulogy.”
- Jerry Seinfeld
“There are only two
types of speakers in the
world: one, the nervous
and, two, liars.”
- Mark Twain
Overcoming Anxiety
Nervousness is
Normal
First Impressions
Creating the
illusion of competency
From Negative to Positive
Experience
Preparation
Think positive
Breathe
Focus on message
Don’t expect perfection
Impromptu
Speeches
“There are always three speeches, for every
one you actually gave. The one you
practiced, the one you gave, and the one
you wish you gave.”
- Dale Carnegie
Developing Your First Speech
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Know your objective
Limit your points
Organize: introduction, body, conclusion
Fit the time limit
Rehearse out loud
Team feedback
Revise
"It takes one hour
of preparation for
each minute of
presentation time."
- Wayne Burgraff
Informative Presentation Guidelines
Limit the amount of information
Adjust level of complexity
Stress relevance and usefulness
Relate new information to old
Make speech easy to remember
Focus audience attention
Selecting Topic & Purpose
Guidelines for your speech proposals and
outlines . . .
What is the topic?
What is the general purpose?
What is the specific purpose?
What is the central idea?
Choosing a Topic
“The best way to sound like you know what
you're talking about is to know what you're
talking about.”
-- Author Unknown
General Purpose
The broad goal of a speech.
"If you don't know what you want to achieve
in your presentation your audience never will."
- Harvey Diamond
Specific Purpose Statement
A single phrase that states precisely what
a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or
her speech.
Specific Purpose Guidelines
Express as a statement, not question
Avoid figurative language
Limit to one distinct idea
Avoid being too vague or general
Specific Purpose Guidelines
Write as a full infinitive phrase
Ineffective:
Calendars
More Effective: To inform my audience
about the four major kinds
of calendars used in the
world today.
Specific Purpose Guidelines
Express as a statement, not question
Ineffective:
Is the U.S. space program
necessary?
More Effective: To persuade my audience
that the U.S. space program
provides many important benefits to people here on earth.
Specific Purpose Guidelines
Avoid figurative language
Ineffective:
To inform my audience that
yoga is extremely cool.
More Effective: To inform my audience how
yoga can improve their
health.
Specific Purpose Guidelines
One distinct idea
Ineffective:
To persuade my audience to
become literacy tutors and
to donate time to Habitat for
Humanity.
More effective: To persuade my audience to
become literacy tutors.
OR
More effective: To persuade my audience to
donate time to Habitat for
Humanity.
Specific Purpose Guidelines
Not too vague or general
Ineffective:
To inform my audience
about the Civil War.
More Effective: To inform my audience
about the role of
African-American soldiers
in the Civil War.
Questions to Ask About Your
Specific Purpose
Does it meet the assignment?
Can I accomplish it in the time allotted?
Is it relevant to my audience?
Too trivial?
Too technical?
Central Idea
A one-sentence statement that sums up
or encapsulates the major ideas of a
speech.
“If you can't write your message in a
sentence, you can't say it in an hour.”
- Dianna Booher
Guidelines for the Central Idea
Do not be vague or overly general
Express as a full sentence
Do not express as a question
Avoid figurative language
Guidelines for the Central Idea
Not too general
Ineffective:
Paying college athletes a
salary is a good idea.
More Effective: Because college athletes in
such as revenue-producing
sports football and basketball
generate millions of dollars in
revenue for their schools, the
NCAA should allow such
athletes to receive a $250
monthly salary as part of their
scholarships.
Guidelines for the Central Idea
Complete sentence
Ineffective:
Use of the laser.
More Effective: The laser is a highly versatile
device with important uses in
medicine, industry, art, and
communications.
Guidelines for the Central Idea
Not a question
Ineffective:
How does indoor soccer
differ from outdoor soccer?
More Effective: Played on a smaller,
enclosed field that resembles
a hockey rink with artificial
turf, indoor soccer involves
faster action, more scoring,
and different strategies than
outdoor soccer.
Guidelines for the Central Idea
Avoid figurative language
Ineffective:
Mexico’s Yucatan
peninsula is an awesome
place for a vacation.
More Effective: Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula
has many attractions for
vacationers, including a warm
climate, excellent food, and
extensive Mayan ruins.
General Purpose:
To inform
Specific Purpose:
To inform my audience
of the three major races
in alpine skiing.
Central Idea:
The three major races
in alpine skiing are
the downhill, the
slalom, and the giant
slalom.
Main Points:
I. The first major race in
alpine skiing is the
downhill
II. The second major race
in alpine skiing is the
slalom.
III. The third major race
in alpine skiing is the
giant slalom.
Selecting Topic & Purpose
Here are several specific purpose statements for
classroom speeches. Identify the problem with each,
and rewrite the statement to correct the problem.
1. To inform my audience how to make
perfect popcorn every time.
2. To inform my audience about the
growth of credit card fraud and the
methods of sound financial planning.
3. What is obsessive compulsive disorder?
4. To inform my audience why square
grooves are superior to U-shaped
grooves on golf clubs.
5. To inform my audience about Thailand.
6. Donate blood.
7. To persuade my audience that
something has to be done about the
problem of antibiotic-resistant
bacteria.
Activity
Write Your Specific Purpose
and Central Idea statements
What’s the role of the introduction?
Gain attention and interest
Reveal the topic
Establish credibility and goodwill
Preview the body of the speech
What’s the role of the conclusion?
Signal the end of the speech
Reinforce the central idea
Activity
Setting the Hook:
Design an attention-grabbing opening
for the introduction of your final
individual speech.
Organizing Your Speech
Organizing and supporting the main points
of your presentation
Ordering your speech
Connectives
Organizing Your Speech
Outlining your presentation
The preparation outline
The speaking outline
Informative Presentation Guidelines
Limit the amount of information
Adjust level of complexity
Stress relevance and usefulness
Relate new information to old
Make speech easy to remember
Focus audience attention
Supporting Materials
Examples
Statistics
Testimony
“I am not one of those who in
expressing opinions confine
themselves to facts.”
Mark Twain (1835 - 1910)
“There are three kinds
of lies: lies, damn lies
and statistics.”
Benjamin Disraeli (1804 - 1881)
Organizing Your Speech
Each of the following statements violates
at least one of the criteria for effective
supporting materials. Identify the flaw (or
flaws) in each statement.
Critiquing a Speech
Focusing on the positive
Content
Organization and flow
Strong introduction and conclusion
Transitions
Appropriate to audience
Meeting the goal/purpose
Critiquing a Speech
Delivery
Voice
Language
Movement and gestures
Visual Aids
Organizing Your Speech
Each of the following statements violates
at least one of the criteria for effective
supporting materials. Identify the flaw (or
flaws) in each statement.
Elements of Delivery: Voice
Volume
Pitch
Rate/pacing
Pauses
Vocal variety
Articulation
Pronunciation
Dialect
Activity
Voice Inflection
Read the following sentence
emphasizing the highlighted word:
I didn’t say you are crazy.
Activity
Voice Inflection
Read the following sentence
emphasizing the highlighted word:
I didn’t say you are crazy.
Activity
Voice Inflection
Read the following sentence
emphasizing the highlighted word:
I didn’t say you are crazy.
Activity
Voice Inflection
Read the following sentence
emphasizing the highlighted word:
I didn’t say you are crazy.
Activity
Voice Inflection
Read the following sentence
emphasizing the highlighted word:
I didn’t say you are crazy.
Activity
Voice Inflection
Read the following sentence
emphasizing the highlighted word:
I didn’t say you are crazy.
"The right word may be effective, but
no word was ever as effective as a
rightly timed pause."
- Mark Twain
Activity
Vocal Exercise
Reading a speech excerpt
Elements of Delivery: Gesture
Natural
Relaxed
Unobtrusive
Coordinated with speech
Consistent with message
Varied
Appropriate to audience
and situation
Elements of Delivery: Movement
Purposeful movement
Posture & appearance
Elements of Delivery: Eye Contact
Shows interest in
audience
Promotes credibility
Maintains connection
Gauge audience
response
Practical tips
Critiquing a Speech
Focusing on the positive
Content
Organization and flow
Strong introduction and conclusion
Transitions
Appropriate to audience
Meeting the goal/purpose
Critiquing a Speech
Delivery
Voice
Language
Movement and gestures
Visual Aids
Practical tips
Value of Visual Aids
Gain and maintain audience attention
Help audience understand and
remember your message
Graphically support your message
Illustrate a sequence of events or
procedures
Common Visual Aids
PowerPoint slides
Charts
Photos
Drawings/Illustrations
Flip chart
Whiteboard
Models
Handouts
Samples
CD-ROM
Video
Visual Aid Tips
Consider your audience
Think of your speech objective
Be realistic about your skills
Know the room
Rehearse with your visual aids