Curriculum Models and Programs EDU 259 Spring 2014 Theories Influencing Programs and Curricula Collection of concepts and terms to predict childhood development and behavior. Numerous theories to explain and predict how children behave and learn. Level of influence is determined by schools and their program philosophy. Theories of Piaget and Vygotsky most widely used today. Copyright 2013 Wadsworth Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Fundamental Principles Early Childhood Education Developmental practice to meet the needs of each child. Individual and age appropriate practice. Family involvement and appreciation. Authentic inclusion of children. Observation and assessment of the children. Professional accountability. Copyright 2013 Wadsworth Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Developmental Theorists Erik Erikson –Psychosocial Jean Piaget – Cognitive Development Lev Vygotsky- Sociocultural Howard Gardner – Multiple Intelligences ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Psychosocial Theory Eight stages First four stages most relevant to ECE Trust versus mistrust Autonomy versus shame and doubt Initiative versus guilt Industry versus inferiority ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cognitive Theory How young children learn Constructivism Assimilation Schema/schemata Accommodation Equilibrium Constructivism Other terms -object permanence, egocentric, symbolic thinking ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Cognitive Theory (continued) Stages Sensorimotor (birth to about 2 years) Object permanence Preoperational (about 2 to 7 years) Egocentric Concrete operations (7 to 12 years) Formal operations (12 through adulthood) ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Sociocultural Theory Learning is socially constructed Zone of proximal development Scaffolding Teachers must be excellent observers ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Multiple Intelligences one form of intelligence is not • • • better than another individual differences in children need to be taken very seriously cross-cultural exploration of the ways individuals are intelligent Verbal linguistic and logicalmathematical intelligences are well known and valued All intelligences must be addressed and celebrated ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Intelligence: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence Logical-Mathematical Intelligence Musical-Rhythmic Intelligence Visual-Spatial Intelligence Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence Intrapersonal Intelligence Naturalist Intelligence Multiple Intelligences (continued) This theory provides a framework for teachers to: 1. identify how children learn to build on their strongest assets 2. help children become more intelligent by exposing them to a variety of ways of learning 3. better individualize for children’s interests and needs 4. use teaching strategies that make learning more appropriate, successful, and enjoyable for all children ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Learning Styles Various legitimate methods of learning and processing information Sensory styles Visual learner Auditory learner Tactile-kinesthetic learner Field dependent learning style—able to grasp broad distinctions among concepts and see relationships through a social context Field independent learning style—look at things analytically, imposing one’s own structure to the task ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Play-Based Curriculum: The Foundation for Learning Play is foundation for learning Children need meaningful materials and activities in order to learn Need to be physically, mentally, and emotionally involved ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Play Play is the core of developmentally appropriate practice Play is the foundation for the curriculum Threats to play Teachers, administrators, policy-makers, and families who do not understand the importance Push-down of curricula expectations Social and economic factors Lack of time and opportunity Electronic competition ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Parten’s Developmental Stages of Play • Unoccupied behavior • Onlooker play • Solitary play • Parallel play • Associative play • Cooperative play ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Play Types of Play Theorists and Play Erickson Play helps develop cooperative relationships Piaget Practice play Symbolic play Games with rules Lev Vygotsky Social play helps child “interpret the world” ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Some Tips for Teachers Play is neurological therefore is critical to brain growth Be aware of current research and resources that validate the importance of play. Create a positive place for play Provide open-ended materials and activities ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Some Tips for Teachers Introduce age-appropriate play activities and materials Provide time for play Respect individual differences in play Respect and provide for cultural diversity in play Observe children’s play and learn about them Play: Essential for All Children Play enhances all developmental domains— physical, social, cognitive, emotional, creative Play inspires imagination, creativity, exploration, self-confidence, more play Play enhances problem solving, new skills, selfesteem, and sense of security ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Program Perspectives and Practices 1. Trends cycle and affect activities and experiences. 2. Various programs: Reggio Emilia Inspired HighScope Waldorf Schools, Montessori Creative Curriculum. Copyright 2013 Wadsworth Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Types of Programs Some provide child care. Some provide opportunities for learning. Some provide both care and early learning. Programs offer care and/or learning to infants and toddlers, to preschoolers, and to school-age children before and after school. Copyright 2013 Wadsworth Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Best Practices for Quality Programs Are Developmentally Appropriate Teachers who caringly and actively interact with the children establish best practices Sincere and meaningful relationships contribute to forming an essential foundation for assuring developmentally appropriate practice. Developmentally appropriate curriculum planning will support high-quality play experiences while, at the same time, reinforce children’s optimal skill development and educational success. Copyright 2013 Wadsworth Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Practice Strengthening Connections: Harmony, Equity, Respect in Children’s Programs 1. Programs follow standards of quality 2. Responsive to diversity of the children, their families, their communities 3. Strong connections between the children and teachers 4. Curriculum represents and includes all children realistically and appropriate Copyright 2013 Wadsworth Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Curriculum Models and Programs Head Start Bank Street Montessori High/ Scope ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Reggio Emilia Montessori “Absorbent minds” Environment important Hands-on activities Involvement of family Attitude of cooperation rather than competition Self-correcting materials Didactic materials Focus on daily living tasks Sensorial and conceptual materials ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Head Start • • • • • • • • Publicly funded Comprehensive services Aimed at low-income, at-risk children and families Low child-staff ratio Written curriculum plan known as performance standards Ten percent of enrollment available for children with special needs Involvement of families Early Head Start to promote infant and toddler development ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Bank Street • • • • • • • • Founded by Lucy Sprague Mitchell Child-centered learning Emphasizes the interaction between the child and the environment and interaction between the cognitive and affective (developmental interaction) Creation of meaning is the central task of childhood Distinct learning centers Opportunities for children to experience democratic living Flexibility in the schedule Synonymous with “open education” ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. High/Scope • • • • • • Created under the leadership of David Weikert Began as an intervention program for low-income, atrisk children High/Scope Perry Preschool Study Active learning Plan-do-review sequence Emphasizes key experiences now known as key developmental indicators (KDIs) ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Reggio Emilia • • • • • Founded by Loris Malaguzzi Image of a strong child central to philosophy Teachers are skilled observers Pedigogista, atelierista, & The hundred languages of children Principles are congruent with the principles of developmentally appropriate practice Environment is a “third teacher” Relationships central in learning ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Curriculum Development Themes and units Projects Child Webs ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Lesson plans Themes and Units A theme is a broad concept or topic A unit is a section of the curriculum Basic concepts for developing thematic curriculum Merge play with child-directed and teacherinitiated experiences Should be developmentally appropriate Support a positive self-esteem Activities should be adaptable ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Themes Generally a smaller part of a unit, allowing for a more specific focus Those that directly concern children are generally of greatest interest to the children There is a danger of creating an artificial unit that has no relevancy to the children’s experiences or interests Themes can be too restrictive and adult-directed ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Holiday Themes or Not? Inappropriate to limit the use of themes to specific times of the year or to celebrate holidays Themes tend to isolate and narrowly define the topic Some holiday themes may not be appropriate to every family represented by the group Tourist approach to cultural diversity: holiday themes are often the only exposure the class has to a particular culture Overuse of holiday themes actually paints a flat picture of a cultural or religious event without taking into account how people in that culture live, work, sleep, or play in ways that are similar to other children ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Life-Oriented Themes Of great interest because they directly concern themselves with young children Teachers must know what reflects children’s interest and abilities Some themes address children’s own issues Themes can be inclusive, integrated, and appropriate ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Projects A project is an in-depth investigation - Addresses the four major learning goals of all education Can be done by a small group, entire class, or individual child Inquiry skills are utilized Goes through 3 phases 1. Choose a topic 2. Investigate the topic Co-learning 3. Review and reflect about what you have learned ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Project Approach Exploring a theme or topic over a period of days or weeks Children work in small groups throughout the process and have the opportunity to make numerous choices about their level of participation Has different levels of complexity so it meets the needs of children of different ages and abilities Projects emerge from children’s own interests, the teacher’s observations of children’s needs and interests, and parents’ suggestions ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Process of Project Approach The project approach: structural features Discussion Representation Fieldwork Investigation Display ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Curriculum Webs Graphic representation of brainstorming ideas Integrate various learning activities Develop the scope and content of the theme Child-centered webbing can be used to create activities that focus on the identified needs/goals ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Webbing Webbing—the process through which a teacher develops a diagram based on a particular topic or theme, highlighting key ideas and concepts A planning tool that provides depth to a topic and creates a map of possible activities and projects May be organized around a theme, into curriculum areas, or around program goals ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Curriculum Web Developed for the book Listen to the Wind The Webbing Process 1. Brainstorming 2. Grouping 3. Sharing 4. Drawing ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Lesson and Activity Plans Lesson plans involve making series of choices Specific planning time Planning form “Things to remember” form/checklist Activity plan Step-by-step procedures Writing measurable objectives Key words ©2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.