Designing an Effective Writing Programme
with Reference to
the Learning Progression Framework
for English Language (New)
10 APRIL 2014
ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION SECTION
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE
EDUCATION BUREAU
1
Objectives
» To introduce the LPF for English Language as a reference tool
to design a school-based writing programme and plan for the
progressive development of writing skills at the upper
primary level;
» To provide suggestions on how to fine-tune the existing
writing programme by including stimulating writing tasks;
and
» To provide hands-on activities to examine students' work and
introduce effective strategies to give quality feedback and
promote assessment for/as learning.
2
Run-down of Today’s Programme
2:00 – 2:10 PM
Registration
2:10 – 3:00 PM
Identifying the key components of a
Writing Programme with reference to the
Learning Progression Framework (LPF)
3:00 – 3:45 PM
Fine-tuning the School-based Writing Programme
3:45 – 4:00 PM
Break
4:00 – 4:45 PM
Using the LPF to Give Constructive Feedback and
Promote Assessment for/as Learning
4:45 – 5:00 PM
Q&A
3
Activity 1
In groups,
1. Describe your students’ writing abilities;
 Motivation
 Writing ideas
 Writing performance, e.g. content, organisation,
language
2. Share how you develop your students’ writing skills.
4
What is a Learning Progression
Framework (LPF)?
The LPF:
• represents the growth of learners on a
developmental continuum as they work
towards the Learning Targets and
Objectives of the English Language
curriculum;
• is made up of Learning Outcomes
organised under the four language skills
and divided into eight levels of attainment;
• helps teachers better understand and
articulate learners’ performance; and
• helps teachers plan strategically how to
enhance English Language learning,
teaching and assessment.
Learning
Outcomes
8
………
………
7
………
………
6
………
………
5
………
………
4
………
………
3
………
………
2
………
………
1
………
………
Level
5
Figure Illustrating the Structure of the LPF
for English Language
LOs organised & presented
under the four language skills
LOs for each
language skill
expressed in the
form of outcome
statements (a
general description
of learner
performance)
Outcome
Statements
Pointers provide
specific
examples of
what learners
are able to do in
demonstrating
the LOs.
Exemplars illustrate
the expected student
performance.
Exemplars
Underlying
Principles
Underlying Principles elucidate some of the
learning objectives which do not lend themselves
to the description in terms of 8 levels of attainment
but are essential to English language learning.
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Aspects of Progression shown in the Productive and Receptive Skills
Productive
Skills
Speaking
Writing
The outcome statements show the progression in terms of:
• Content, Organisation and
Communication Strategies
• Language
• Pronunciation, Stress,
Rhythm and Intonation
• Content
• Organisation
• Language and Style
Underlying Principles
Reading
Underlying Principles
Receptive
Skills
Listening
The outcome statements show the progression in terms of:
• Depth of processing information, ideas and feelings
• Text complexity
• Range and application of strategies
Underlying Principles
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Activity 2
In groups,
1. study the outcome statements of the LPF for Writing;
2. sequence them so that they form a developmental
continuum of eight levels, based on your personal /
teaching experience;
3. Study three exemplars chosen from the e-LPF,
identify the levels and use the pointers to comment
on the writings.
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Activity 3
In groups,
1. study the writing plans of two schools; and
2. comment on the strengths and weaknesses of
the plans.
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Lack of
motivation
Lack of
ideas
Inconsistent
use of tenses
writing
problems
Poor
language
Incoherent
unit plan
Poor
organisation
Insufficient
vocabulary
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DESIGNING A SCHOOL-BASED
WRITING PROGRAMME (CONTENT)
Pointers from Levels 3 – 5
Lack of ideas
1.
2.
Raising awareness
of text type
features
3.
4.
5.
6.
Using graphic
organisers to
expand/elaborate
ideas
7.
8.
Write and reply to short and simple letters to share
personal experiences
Write short and simple descriptions of objects,
people, places and events
Write short and simple stories
Write and reply to simple letters to share personal
experiences
Write simple descriptions of objects, people, places
and events with some details
Write some formal letters to make simple requests
and enquiries
Write a range of simple texts to describe, recount,
record, explain and propose with some supporting
details
Write stories with a setting, a simple plot and simple
characterisation
11
DESIGNING A SCHOOL-BASED
WRITING PROGRAMME (LANGUAGE AND STYLE)
Pointers from Levels 3 – 5
Poor
Language
Insufficient
vocabulary
1.
2.
3.
4.
Inconsistent
use of tenses
5.
6.
Use a small range of vocabulary on familiar
topics, with most words correctly spelt and
some word collocations correct
Use a range of adjectives/adjective phrases
to describe and compare with some
consistency
Use a small range of adverbs/adverbial
clauses for some communicative functions
with some consistency
Use a small range of tenses and passive
voice with some consistency
Use modals for some communicative
functions with consistency
Show an awareness of using some stylistic
features (e.g. using dialogues in stories to
create interest, use headings and subheadings to clarify presentation) to
support the purpose of text
12
DESIGNING A SCHOOL-BASED
WRITING PROGRAMME (ORGANISATION)
1.
2.
Poor
organisation
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Pointers from Levels 3 – 5
Establish links using some simple cohesive
devices with some consistency
Arrange ideas in a short text using short and
simple means (e.g. sequencing events
chronologically) to show a generally clear
focus
Arrange ideas in a short text using simple
means (e.g. providing illustrations or
explanations) to show a generally clear
focus
Structure the text using paragraphs,
including a brief introductory and/or
concluding statement
Establish links within some paragraphs using
a range of cohesive devices with some
consistency
Arrange ideas in some paragraphs using
different means (e.g. using topic sentences)
Structure the text using paragraphs
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DESIGNING A SCHOOL-BASED
WRITING PROGRAMME
Underlying Principles
Lack of
Motivation
Designing
meaningful
writing tasks
1. Language development strategies, generic skills,
and positive values and attitudes are essential to
English Language learning and should form an
integral part of the learning-teachingassessment cycle.
2. The meaningfulness and appropriateness of the
written texts to the context, purpose and
audience are implicit in and apply across all the
learning outcomes.
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DESIGNING A SCHOOL-BASED
WRITING PROGRAMME
Underlying Principles
Incoherent
unit plan
3. The development of writing strategies does not
readily lend itself to descriptions in all of the
eight levels of learning outcomes, e.g.,
•
Reflect on
current teaching
practice
Provide support
in the L&T
process
•
•
•
generating ideas by brainstorming or seeking and
selecting information and ideas from different sources
revising drafts by adding, deleting, substituting or
linking ideas
editing drafts by correcting errors in language
reflecting on own writing based on feedback from
teachers or peers
4. Teacher support is essential to helping learners
express and organise their ideas during the
learning and teaching process. As learners
progress, the amount of support provided could
be gradually reduced to promote learner
independence
15
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Activity 4
In groups,
1. share interesting writing topics;
2. share ideas and strategies to scaffold the writing
skills of the less able students; and
3. share ideas and strategies to stretch the abilities
of the more able students.
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Improving Students’ Vocabulary Building Strategies
Dimensions of
vocabulary
knowledge
Collocation
(e.g. look at the painting)
Forms
(e.g. paint, painter, painting)
Vocabulary
Meaning
Functions
(e.g. singulars/plurals: a painter, painters
parts of speech: paint, painting, painted )
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Improving Students’ Vocabulary Building Strategies
Approaches in vocabulary learning
AREA OF FOCUS
Paradigmatic Approach
help pupils expand
the size of vocabulary
Syntagmatic Approach
help pupils understand the
usage of the vocabulary
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Improving Students’ Vocabulary Building Strategies
Syntagmatic Approach
Topic: Jobs
PEOPLE
ACTIONS
OBJECTS
PLACE
Chef
cook
meals
restaurant
Teacher
Singer
Pilot
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Improving students’ writing skills in
the Organisation of Ideas
 Introducing the text type features, format and layout to students explicitly
 Raising students’ awareness of the organisation of the text, e.g. through
dicto-comp, sequencing events
The format of a
personal letter
Strategies to stretch students’ writing abilities
Non-fiction
Manuals for playing
Personal letters
new toys
Recounts Giving advice
Biography/
Autobiography
Recipes
News reports
Journal Writing
P4
Imaginative
stories
Fairy tales
P5
Fantasy
Fables
Fiction
P6
To engage students in
interesting and meaningful
writing activities and
to stimulate students to
think and write creatively
and critically
Writing
at KS3
Adventures
Dilemma
To enhance
students’ writing
skills progressively
to ensure a smooth
transition between
P6 and S1
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Strategies to stretch students’ writing abilities
 Providing opportunities for students to write
creatively and critically
Some principles:
1. Go beyond the given information
2. Allow time to think
3. Strengthen creative abilities, e.g.
•
•
•
look at a situation from several perspectives
break away from traditional patterns of thought
teach creative thinking techniques
http://www.edb.gov.hk/creativethinking_pri
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Activity 5
In groups,
1. analyse the strengths and weaknesses of the
following assessment rubrics:
 Marking scheme
 Peer assessment forms
2. make suggestions on areas for improvement
with reference to the LPF.
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Steps in Designing an Effective Writing Programme
Key components
Learning &
Teaching
Strategies
Assessment
as/for learning
• engaging students in a range of tasks that
cover a variety of purposes and text types
• developing writing skills progressively
• catering for diverse learning abilities
• developing strategies to approach the
writing tasks
• providing support for students to
•
•
•
•
develop vocabulary building strategies
understand features of different text types
express personal ideas/experience
write with imaginative ideas
• identifying the requirements for each task in
terms of the three domains in the LPF
• guiding students to improve the first draft
based on constructive feedback from teachers
and/or peers using task specific feedback
sheet
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Designing an Effective Writing Programme with Reference to the