ARGUMENT WRITING CLAIMS What is a claim? An argument that is the main idea or thesis The claim should be an answer to the writing task: Literary or Informational: which type of text more effectively portrays the Holocaust? After reading excerpts from texts about WWII, write an essay that compares a literary and informational account and argues which better conveys a Holocaust experience. Be sure to support your position with evidence from the texts. A claim should not have the words “I think” or “my opinion” as part of the sentence. CLAIMS ___________________ more ef fectively por trays the Holocaust experience of __________________________ through the use of ___________________, _________________, and _________________. Literar y texts more ef fectively por tray the Holocaust experience of Jews in hiding through the use of a per sonal per spective, emotions, and a plot conflict. The fir st blank is whether you will argue for literar y text or informational text. The second blank is for what par t of the Holocaust you will discuss: Hitler’s rise to power, Jews in the ghettos, the US or Great Britain joining the war, Jews in concentrati on camps, Jews in hiding, the life of soldier s, or liberation. The last three blanks are for the reasons you prefer those texts: Literary Text: personal perspective, plot structure (characters, setting, conflict, resolution, theme), diary or poem structure, emotional language, figurative language, informal language, the purpose of entertaining or inspiring Informational Text: World/historical perspective, text features (photos, graphs/charts, headings), text structures (chronological, cause/effect, comparison/contrast), facts, literal or domain-specific language, formal language, purpose of informing or teaching SUPPORTING CLAIMS WITH EVIDENCE What is logical reasoning? An explanation for a claim that makes sense in the mind. What is relevant evidence? Support from texts that support your claims. The support should match your claim. SUPPORTING CLAIMS WITH EVIDENCE Collect evidence from the text using Cornell Notes: Begin with the MLA Citation (using the MLA Citation Guide) On the left, write quotes and specific details from the text that will support your reasons/claim. SUPPORTING CLAIMS WITH EVIDENCE On the right, write your explanation for the quotes. Describe what the quote is about. Explain how this element helps a reader better understand this experience of the Holocaust. This quote shows how the story is based around Annemarie’s point of view and how she sees the world. By seeing the story from her perspective, the reader can connect more personally with the ways the war affected both Jews and friends of Jews. OPPOSING CLAIMS Complete the process on the other side with evidence for your OPPOSING CLAIM. So for each characteristic that you determined as a strength for the type of text you are arguing for, find the correlating “weakness” in the opposite type of text. So if you are arguing that literary text is better because of the personal perspective, find an example of the “weakness” of the worldwide perspective in informational text. Use the LIT VS. IT notes to find the opposing characteristics. OPPOSING CLAIMS Collect evidence from the text using Cornell Notes: Begin with the MLA Citation (using the MLA Citation Guide) On the left, write quotes and specific details from the text that will show the opposing claims. OPPOSING CLAIMS On the right, write your explanation for the quotes. Describe what the quote is about. Explain how this element weakens a reader’s understanding of the Holocaust experience. This informational text continually refers to “many Jews”. This focus on a large group of people makes it difficult for a reader to connect on a personal level. INTRODUCE CLAIMS Begin with the hook: bring the reader into the “conversation” Introduce the overall topic: what is your paper about? Transition from the hook to the claim: have at least one sentence that helps the reader logically go from the hook to the claim. State your claim in the end of the first paragraph. When reading the script version of The Miracle Worker, the theme of perseverance announces itself in each scene. The dialogue between Anne and Captain Keller persistently reveals Anne’s unfailing devotion to her goal. The stage directions repeatedly describe Anne’s unceasing ef forts at teaching Helen. Anne’s soliloquies and monologues show how her past motivates her to not give up on her student. However, when it comes to the emotional connection between characters, the written drama falls short. The film version more ef fectively shows the relationships of the characters through the use of music, spoken lines, and superb acting. ORGANIZE REASONS LOGICALLY Each body paragraph should begin with a reason you have to support your claim; these are your topic sentences. Topic sentences should begin with transitions to help your paper flow in a logical order. Because the structure of this argumentation task is comparison/contrast, include opposing claims at the end of each body paragraph. Again, remember not to use “I”, “you”, or “ we”. Remember, this is an essay; it should have a professional tone. ORGANIZE REASONS LOGICALLY The first body paragraph should begin with the first reason you have to support your claim; this is your first topic sentence. Ef fective transitions for the first body paragraph include: First of all, The first reason… To begin with, One way… To begin with, literary texts more ef fectively portray the Holocaust experience of Jews in the ghetto through the use of figurative language. First of all, informational texts more ef fectively portray the Holocaust experience of Jews in the ghetto through the use of domain-specific language. ORGANIZE REASONS LOGICALLY The second body paragraph should begin with the second reason you have to support your claim; this is your second topic sentence. Ef fective transitions for the second body paragraph include: Second, The next reason… Next, Another way… Second, literary texts more ef fectively portray the Holocaust experience of Jews in the ghetto through the use of a personal perspective. Another way informational texts more ef fectively portray the Holocaust experience of Jews in the ghetto through the use of worldwide perspective. ORGANIZE REASONS LOGICALLY The third body paragraph should begin with the third reason you have to support your claim; this is your third topic sentence. Ef fective transitions for the third body paragraph include: Third, A final reason… Finally, An additional way… A final reason that literary texts more ef fectively portray the Holocaust experience of Jews in the ghetto is through the use of a fictional plot. Finally, informational texts more ef fectively portray the Holocaust experience of Jews in the ghetto through the use of photographs. ACKNOWLEDGE OPPOSING CLAIMS At the end of each body paragraph acknowledge opposing claims. Think about how someone would argue the opposite of your claim. Use transition words to begin your acknowledgement of opposing claims. Ef fective transitions to acknowledge opposing claims are: On the other hand, Although, Even though, While it could be argued that… In contrast, Before moving on, refute the opposing claim. CONCLUDING SECTION Begin the concluding section with a transition. Ef fective transitions for a concluding section include: In conclusion, In closing, As shown above, Restate your claim from the introduction in dif ferent words. The second most important paragraph; the final chance to sway your reader. Answer the essential question: How does real-world courage inform the depiction of determined literary characters? Provide definitive reasoning: Of fer another reason why literary/information shows the holocaust better that you haven’t said yet. Show major learning FORMAL ST YLE AND FORMATTING FORMAL ST YLE: Use academic and domain-specific language No slang or text speak No personal pronouns: I, you, we FORMATTING 12 pt. Times New Roman One inch margins Double space between lines (2.0) Indent each paragraph Header in top right with last name and page number In the upper left-hand corner, list your name, your instructor’s name, the course, and the date, each on a new line No other formatting (bold, underlines, colors, etc.) Save to your personal drive! TRANSITIONS Transitions should occur within paragraphs, not just when moving from paragraph to paragraph. They are the glue of the entire writing piece. Use transitions to: Begin a new paragraph/shift to new ideas To begin with, another way, finally, Introduce evidence For example, for instance Identify evidence In the scene, in the book Night, in this passage, this quote Connect or explain ideas As a result, since, because, therefore Acknowledge opposing claims However, on the other hand, although, unlike TRANSITIONS To begin with, literary text better portrays the Holocaust through the use of a personal perspective. For instance, in Number the Stars, the text states that, “trembling , the two girls rose from the bed and followed him, brushing past the two remaining of ficers in the doorway, to the living room. Annemarie looked around .” This quote shows how the story is based around Annemarie’s point of view and how she sees the world. As a result of seeing the story from her perspective and developing concern for the character, the reader can connect more personally with the ways the war af fected both Jews and friends of Jews. On the other hand, it could be argued that informational text of fers readers a more worldwide or historical viewpoint. An example in the article “Going into Hiding” points out that “ The punishment for a non-Jew helping Jews was equally severe. For this reason alone, many Jews decided against going underground.” While this allows the reader to understand what was happening during the Holocaust, the continual reference to “many Jews” does not allow for any personal connection.