Making the stationary, Mobile.
Animation

 Animation is the creation of an illusion of
movement by assembling a sequence of still images.
 There are many different ways to create animation,
some easier than others.
 What are some examples of animation that we still
see today?
 This illusion is created by a concept called
Persistence of Vision.
What is persistence of
Vision?

 The process for when light’s stimulus lingers on the
retina slightly longer than it actually shines on the
eye.
 This is also the same process that makes you see a
dark spot when you look away from a bright light
source.
 For this principle to fully work, the eye needs to
“see” at least 10 Frames Per Second (FPS)
 At 24 – 30 Frames Per Second, creates a completely
illusionary perception of motion.
Beta Movement and
Closure

 In 1912 Max Wertheimer did an experimental study
on Seeing motion, whereby two or more still images
are combined by the brain into surmised motion.
 After being asked what they say, the audiences will
generally claim they saw the image move.
 Max Wertheimer also founded the Gestalt
movement, which theorizes that the mind will “fill in
the blanks” when it perceives a partial object.
Gestalt Closure Example

Kineograph (Flipbooks)

 Relying solely on the user, a flip book is one of the
earliest forms of animation.
 A flip book is a series of pictures, one page after
another, that has similar images that progress an
action.
 Although it takes little to create (paper and a pencil)
there is a high difficulty in creating similar images. It
is also very time consuming.
Zoetrope

 Invented in 1834 by William George Horner, the
Zoetrope consisted of a series of pictures on a paper
strip arranged on the inside of a revolving drum.
 The drum had small slits you could look through to
see the pictures.
 A strip with 12 images will produce a moving
subject that appears to progress forwards.
Zoetrope

The Thaumatrope

 The Thaumatrope is a disc with different images on
either side with strings attached at both ends to
allow it to be spun at a rapid rate.
 The Thaumatrope was a popular toy during the
Victorian era.
 As the disc is spun, the images “blend” together to
create one picture.
 We will now create this illusion by creating our own
Thaumatrope.
Bird in a Cage

 Step 1:
- If not already provided,
cut a 3 inch diameter circle
out of a strong card stock
paper.
 Step 2:
- On one side of the
circle, draw a birdcage.
(Follow illustrations A – C)
Step 2 A:
Bird in a Cage

Step 2 B:
Step 2 C:
Bird in a Cage

 Step 3:
- Flipping the circle over
on the other side so the
birdcage is upside
down, draw a bird on
the other side of the
circle.
(Follow steps A-F)
 Step 3 A:
Draw a Circle in the center
Bird in a Cage

 Step 3 B:
- Draw a triangle to
make a tail.
Step 3 C:
- Add another triangle for
the beak.
Bird in a Cage

 Step 3 D:
- Draw a curved line for
the wings and chest.
 Step 4 E:
- Be sure to add feet and
eyes!
Bird in a Cage

 Step 3 F:
- Finally, add a perch
for your bird to sit on.
Other Examples of Stop
Motion

 Film/video: All film and video is made up of individual
frames. If our eyes and brains worked quicker, the films
and cartoons we watch would be a parade of still images.
These frames leave their unmoving ghosts frozen in the
eye until the next image flashes before it, until the brain is
tricked into seeing one thing moving, instead of many
things standing still.
 Animation: Walt Disney had to meticulously draw each
frame, or cell.
 Computers: Some flash images move at 15 FPS. That is
why you see a flicker. Many digital “live” media move
much quicker. 60 FPS will be so quick, your eye will not
be able to tell there is a space in between the images.
Claymation

 Claymation has been around since 1912 with the
stop motion film Modeling Extraordinary.
 It is still a very popular medium today. Some very
popular films including Wallace and Gromit are still
produced and loved today.
 Wallace and Gromit is a popular British stop motion
animated series, and has been used to both promote
stores and advertise products.
Claymation

 Although claymation can get very complex, a simple
model with a simple task can best be used to
demonstrate this artform.
 Using modern digital technology, the creation of a
claymation video can now take hours, rather than
months.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 1:
 Roll out 6 – 7 ounces of the black modeling clay with
your hands so it can easily wrap around the
styrofoam egg.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 1:
 Cut the styrofoam egg in half along the longest
diameter of the egg
Claymation Fish

 Step 1:
 Cut the styrofoam egg lengthwise (along the lager
diameter) approximately ¾ of the way down. The
flat side will function as the stable bottom to your
fish.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 2:
 Wrap the flattened black modeling clay around the
foam egg. Smooth the clay around so it creates a pear
shape.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 2:
 Roll out about 6-7 ounces of the gray modeling clay
with your hands so it can easily wrap around the egg
half.
Claymation Fish

 Step 2:
 Roll out 6-7 ounces of the colorful modeling clay
with your hands so it can easily wrap around the
egg.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 3:
 Flatten most of the provided white clay out into the
shape of a figure 8. (Save some for the eyes) The final
shape should be very thin and have an hourglass
figure.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 3:
 Wrap the flattened gray modeling clay around the
foam egg half. Smooth the clay around so it crates a
drop shape with a very flat bottom.
Claymation Fish

 Step 3:
 Wrap the flattened colorful modeling clay around
the foam egg. Smooth the clay around so it creates a
pear shape.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 4:
 Attach the white clay to the bottom part of the back
pear shape. This is the penguin’s “tuxedo shirt”.
Make sure you do not smooth the white clay into the
black clay.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 4:
 Take a small piece of pink clay (or other color) to
create a small nose for the tip of the drop shape.
Claymation Fish

 Step 4:
 Stick 2- 1” skewers into the bottom side of the thick
shape. This will be used hold the pectoral fins (the
models “feet”) in place.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 5:
 Stick the 2” skewer (no pointy end) through the top
(about ¾ of the way up from the bottom) of the pear
shaped model. It should not go into the white clay.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 5:
 Roll out the rest of the pink (or other color) clay to
make a snake like figure. This is the tail. Attach it to
the thicker back end of the mouse. Make sure it isn’t
too thin, so you can later manipulate it.
Claymation Fish

 Step 5:
 Shape 2 packing peanuts to approximately ½” long,
and ¼” wide and thick. This will be the skeleton for
the pectoral fins.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 6:
 Shape the packaging peanuts so that they’re
approximately 1” – 1 ½” long, and about ½” thick.
This will function as the skeleton for the flippers.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 6:
 Stick 4 - 1” skewers (two on each side) behind and
above the nose. These will function as the wiskers.
Claymation Fish

 Step 6:
 Create 4 fins. 2 pectoral fins to be shaped around
your foam from step 5. 1 dorsal fin to be attached to
the top of your fish’s body, and 1 tail fin attached to
the back. The tail fin can attach vertically or
horizontally.
Claymation Fish

 Step 6 A: Pectoral
 Step 6 B: Dorsal
Claymation Fish

 Step 6 C: Tail
Claymation Penguins

 Step 7:
 Use the rest of the black modeling clay (save two
dots for the eyes)v to form the flippers around the
foam shaped in Step 6.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 7:
 Place two white dots above and behind the wiskers.
These will be the base of the eyes. Attach two black
clay dots in the center of the white clay to form the
pupils. These should not be smoothed out.
Claymation Fish

 Step 7:
 Place two small white dots on the front or side of the
large side of the pear. This is the fish’s eyes. Place
two small black dots in the center of the white clay to
function as the pupils. Thes should not be smoothed
out.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 8:
 Attach the newly created flippers to the skewer ends.
They should remain mobile, so do not smooth the
shoulders to the penguin body. They should be
secure, yet loose enough to manipulate.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 8:
 Place four triangles cut out of the orange crate paper
under the mouse to create the feet.
Claymation Fish

 Step 8:
 Carve in scales or fin design, or use leftover clay to
add features (like a mouth) to your fish.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 9:
 Place two small flattened white dots at the top of the
body for the base of the eyes. Place two smaller black
dots in the center of the white dots for the pupils.
These should not be smoothed out.
Claymation Mouse

 Step 9:
 Cut out 2 drop shapes out of the orange crate paper.
The pointy end will stick into the clay somewhere
behind the eyes. These will be the ears.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 10:
 Place the orange crate paper feet at the bottom of
your penguin model.
Claymation Penguins

 Step 11:
 Place the Orange crate paper beak pieces where the
mouth should go. These pieces can cut into the clay.
Make sure they are secure enough to stay attached,
yet loose enough to manipulate.
Finished Menagerie

Movement

 Practice moving your models very slightly, and
where they are pliable.
 Think of simple objectives that result in action.
 Until you are well experienced at the craft, keep it
simple. The more complex you get, the harder and
more frustrating it will to complete the objective.
 Make sure you identify approximately how slow one
second really is. The slower you move, the more
smooth your animation will be.