Welcome to this IRSC Adult
Education Elluminate Session
Diana Lenartiene, Ed. S.
moderator/instructor
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Cause
and
Effect
Cause: happens first
The reason, or motive, for an action;
why something happens.
It was raining…
Effect: happens after a cause
The result, or consequence, of an
action.
…so I got wet.
To find cause and effect, we can use some
signal words which let us know that a
cause or an effect are coming up in the
passage.
We will look at a list of these words on
the next slide..
Cause
Because
The reason for
On account of
Bring about
Give rise to
Created by
Contributed to
Led to
Due to
Since
Can
Effect
As a result
Then
Hence
For this reason
Therefore
Outcome
So
Consequently
Finally
After
Have you ever thought about what makes a volcano erupt or what
happens afterward? The book Danger! Volcanoes by Seymour Simon
describes many cause-and-effect relationships. When the temperature
rises deep under the Earth’s crust, it becomes hot enough to melt rock
and turn it into magma.
Sometimes this melted rock blasts through the Earth’s surface, which
causes rock, ash, and deadly gases to fly into the air. The lava that
flows out of the volcano can knock down trees and destroy houses
and even whole towns.
Although volcanoes can cause lots of destruction, the volcano’s
eruption also creates new land. Many times this new land forms an
island in the ocean. You might even live on land created by a volcano!
Have you ever thought about what makes a volcano erupt or what happens
afterward? The book Danger! Volcanoes by Seymour Simon describes
many cause-and-effect relationships. When the temperature rises deep
under the Earth’s crust, it becomes hot enough to melt rock and turn it into
magma.
Sometimes this melted rock blasts through the Earth’s surface, which
causes rock, ash, and deadly gases to fly into the air. The lava that flows out
of the volcano can knock down trees and destroy houses and even whole
towns.
Although volcanoes can cause lots of destruction, the volcano’s eruption
also creates new land. Many times this new land forms an island in the ocean.
You might even live on land created by a volcano!
Now make yourself a chart on your paper with a column for cause and
A column for effect and get ready to work on the same story again.
We will list the causes and effects we find in the story about volcanoes.
Cause(s)
Effect(s)
Have you ever thought about what makes a volcano erupt or what
happens afterward? The book Danger! Volcanoes by Seymour Simon
describes many cause-and-effect relationships. When the temperature
rises deep under the Earth’s crust, it becomes hot enough to melt rock
and turn it into magma.
Sometimes this melted rock blasts through the Earth’s surface, which
causes rock, ash, and deadly gases to fly into the air. The lava that
flows out of the volcano can knock down trees and destroy houses
and even whole towns.
Although volcanoes can cause lots of destruction, the volcano’s
eruption also creates new land. Many times this new land forms an
island in the ocean. You might even live on land created by a volcano!
Have you ever thought about what makes a volcano erupt or what
happens afterward? The book Danger! Volcanoes by Seymour Simon
describes many cause-and-effect relationships. When the temperature
rises deep under the Earth’s crust, it becomes hot enough to melt rock
and turn it into magma.
Sometimes this melted rock blasts through the Earth’s surface, which
causes rock, ash, and deadly gases to fly into the air. The lava that
flows out of the volcano can knock down trees and destroy houses
and even whole towns.
Although volcanoes can cause lots of destruction, the volcano’s
eruption also creates new land. Many times this new land forms an
island in the ocean. You might even live on land created by a volcano!
causes and effects we found in the story about volcanoes.
Cause(s)
Effect(s)
Temperature rises
Rock melts and turns to magma
Melted rock blasts through the Earth’s
surface
Ash, rocks and deadly gases fly into the
air
Lava flows out of the volcano
Knock down trees, houses and even
towns
Volcanoes
Lots of destruction
Volcano’s eruption
Creates new land
1. As a child, I had many pets, including cats, dogs, birds, and gerbils.
Every summer, I also used to watch over my neighbors’ pets when they
went on vacation. As a result, it felt natural for me to become a
veterinarian.
Cause(s):
Effect(s):
2. Because I spent the evening watching television, I never got my math
homework done. The next day, my math teacher called on me and the
entire class saw that I wasn’t able to answer the question. I was so
embarrassed; I never forgot to do my homework again!
Cause(s):
Effect(s):
1. As a child, I had many pets, including cats, dogs, birds, and gerbils.
Every summer, I also used to watch over my neighbors’ pets when they
went on vacation. As a result, it felt natural for me to become a
veterinarian.
Cause(s): I had many pets
I watched my neighbors’ pets when they were on vacation
Effect(s): It felt natural for me to become a veterinarian
2. Because I spent the evening watching television, I never got my math
homework done. The next day, my math teacher called on me and the
entire class saw that I wasn’t able to answer the question. I was so
embarrassed; I never forgot to do my homework again!
Cause(s): Spent the evening watching television
Effect(s): Did not do math homework
wasn’t able to answer the question
was embarrassed
Type 1:One to one connection
Max hit the window with the bat,
and it broke.
Max hits window
Window breaks
Type 2: Chained cause and
effects ‘When people cut down
trees to clear land, they destroy the
habitats of birds. This reduces the
number of nest sites. As a result,
fewer baby birds are hatched, and
the bird population declines.’
The habitats of birds are
destroyed The number of nest
sites is reduced
People cut down trees to
clear land
Type 3: Multiple effects A delay
in billions of dollars of supplemental
war funding for the Pentagon would
cause the Army to curtail training
and equipment repair necessary to
prepare units in the United States
for deployment. If the new funds did
not arrive in time, the Army would
prioritize spending in Iraq,
Afghanistan and elsewhere and cut
Delay in war funding
back in other areas, officials said.
Next, the Army would request the
authority to shift money from its
personnel accounts to pay for
operations. The construction and
upgrading of barracks, fitness
centers and other facilities would
also be affected, Pentagon
spokesman Bryan Whitman said,
(Tyson, 2007).
Curtails training and
equipment repair
Makes personnel account pay
for the Army operations H
Hampers construction and
upgrading of barracks
Type 4: Multiple (catenated) causes
Combustion requires heat, oxygen, and a
fuel source. To put out a fire ,it is
sufficient to remove any one of the
three.
Oxygen Fuel Heat
Fire
Type 5: Multiple (alternative)
causes ‘The surface of the Earth
changes. Some changes are due to slow
destructive processes such as erosion and Landslides Volcanic eruptions
weathering. Some changes are due to
Earthquakes Erosions &
The surface of the Earth changes
rapid constructive and destructive
weathering
processes such as landslides, volcanic
eruptions, and earthquakes. These
changes all affect topography of the
Earth’s surface.’
Cause is something which makes an event happen
Effect is what happens due to the cause
Signal words can let us know there is a cause or effect coming in the passage.
If you have questions, please raise your hand!
If you still have questions, please contact me at:
[email protected]
Thank you for viewing this presentation.
Diana Lenartiene, IRSC ABE Instructor