International Trade Negotiations: WTO and FTAs - John Riley, NZ High Commission, London Our panel: Yaryna Ferencevych, US Embassy (State) Jennie Wilson, US Embassy (FAS) Tiffany McDonald, Aus High Com Matt Molloy, DEFRA, UK and John Riley Things to consider: Countries tend to act in their national interest. What is it that drives the decisions of politicians and officials? Trade Policy •World Trade Organisation (WTO) •Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) •Bilateral Trade Access (removing regulatory barriers) WTO •Secretariat in Geneva •153 Members •Accession process – college fraternity •Membership led oganisation WTO (continued…) •Decisions made by consensus •Surprisingly very effective (dispute settlement) •Ministerial meetings roughly biannually 2 important WTO principles •National Treatment •Most Favoured Nation History •Began 1947 with the GATT •Negotiating Rounds – GATT, Kennedy, Tokyo, Uruguay •Started with non-agricultural subsidies then tariffs •Technical barriers addressed later How are WTO Rounds Negotiated? •By CONSENSUS! Yeah, nah… but there are 153 Members so… • • • • • Negotiating Groups Modalities Chair’s texts Ministerial Meetings The green room How are WTO Rounds negotiated? •The majors crunching it •Splitting the difference (don’t get salami sliced) •Hand of God text •Lock them in a room! Why would they do a deal? Important factors: •Political capital = industry + votes •Reason for urgency (TPA) WTO Doha Round •Commenced 2001 •Called Doha Development Agenda •Incomplete Some important Doha dates •2001 mandate •July 2004 framework •Hong Kong December 2005 •Came close to modalities in July 2008 The Negotiating Groups •Agriculture (subsidies and tariffs) •Non-agricultural market access (tariffs and NTBs) •Services Other Negotiating Groups •Rules (anti-dumping, fish subsidies) •TRIPS (intellectual property, GIs) •Trade facilitation Special and Differential Treatment •Developed countries •Developing countries •Least developed countries Who are the key players? •The G4 Do they have offensive interests or defensive interests? • If a WTO Member wants to reduce tariffs or subsidies… the Member has offensive interests • If a WTO Member wants to maintain tariffs or subsidies… the Member has defensive interests Agriculture: Domestic support (subsidies reductions) Agriculture: Market Access (tariff reductions) Non-agricultural goods: Market Access (tariff reductions) US defensive offensive offensive offensive (?!) defensive offensive offensive offensive defensive offensive defensive defensive EU Brazil India Is each Member mainly offensive or defensive? Mainly wants to reduce measures Mainly wants to maintain measures Which Members are saying this? “We can’t offer to reduce nonagricultural tariffs until other countries offer to decrease agricultural subsidies and agricultural tariffs” - Brazil and India Which Member is saying this? “We can’t offer to reduce agricultural subsidies until other countries offer to decrease their tariffs” - US Which Member is saying this? “We can’t offer to reduce agricultural tariffs until other countries offer to reduce agricultural subsidies and non-agricultural tariffs” - EU What about China? G20 (developing countries wanting reduced agriculture subsidies by developed countries) Argentina, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Brazil, Chile, China, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, Guatemala, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Uruguay, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of, Zimbabwe G33 (developing countries who are defensive on agriculture tariffs) Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Botswana, Côte d’Ivoire, China, Congo, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Republic of, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of, Zambia, Zimbabwe G10 (defensive on ag) Chinese Taipei, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Korea, Republic of, Liechtenstein, Mauritius, Norway, Switzerland Cairns group (offensive on ag subsidies and tariffs) Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay Cairns group (offensive on ag subsidies and tariffs) Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Plurinational State of, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay G100 What is the situation with Doha now? FTA Negotiations •Substantially all trade •Can’t deal with subsidies Some common FTA areas •Goods (tariffs) •Services •Investment •Government procurement •Intellectual property •TBT/SPS (Non-tariff barriers) •Labour and Environment Bilateral Market Access •e.g. Sanitary and Phytosanitary conditions •Sometimes justified •Sometimes not Thank You!