Foreign Policy
of the First 5 Presidents
Pages 32-51
• Isolationism - a national policy of
staying out of political or economic
relations with other countries
This is a list of words you may need to
learn in order to be successful while
studying this unit
• War hawks - Government officials
wanting to attack Britain and invade
• Tribute - the sum or price paid or
• Ransom - a stated sum or other valuable
consideration paid by one sovereign or
state to another in acknowledgment of
subjugation or as the price of peace,
security, protection, or the like.
• Impressment -Forcing American sailors
into the British Navy
Page 32
1. What type of bird is on
the seal and why?
2. What is in the Talons and
3. Why is E Pluribus Unum
the motto on the seal of
the United States?
4. Why all the 13’s
Page 35
Page 34
What is the map of?
Which area is largest?
Which area is smallest?
Where does the US rank in size if
you put them from smallest to
Who would be the potential
enemies of the United States in
1796 ( list 2)?
What could you do if you were
the president of the United States
1796 to defend or protect the US
from potential enemies (list 3)?
Washington had a policy of neutrality that become
known as ISOLATIONISM. This policy became the
foundation of the United States foreign policy for the
next 100 years.
Page 36
Sketch the picture and
use Path to analyze it’s
Use your notes and
knowledge of President
Adams’ foreign policy to
Decide what a Adams
should do to protect the
American ships. Place
you’re choice (a, b, c or d)
on the scale at the bottom
of this page.
Isolationism -------------------Involvement
Page 37
Adams tried to follow Washington’s policy of neutrality but it
was difficult because of France.
Britain never left the Ohio River Valley after the Revolution and
France hoped that the United States and Britain would go to
war over this land. When Britain and the United States agreed
that Britain would leave (the Jay Treaty) France was angry and
began attacking American Ships.
XYZ Affair – Adams sent people to France to stop attacks.
France wanted a bribe or no peace talks. Americans said NO!
“ Millions for Defense, not a cent for Tribute!!” Americans are
angry and Adams does not know what to do.
What should Adams do to protect the American ships?
A. Request that Congress declare war on France
B. Make a military alliance with Britain and try to beat
C. Continue to build stronger defenses and negotiate
with France
D. Stop all American shipping to avoid conflict
Page 38
John Adams
October 1735- July 4, 1826
• Create a tombstone for
Adams based on his foreign
Page 39
for Adams
• Adams knew war would not be good for the
country so he started to work for peace
against his party’s wishes.
• Napoleon took over the French government
and was eager for peace with the Americans
1. France will stop attacking the
American ships
2. End Alliance between France and
3. America would not ask France to pay for
ships that had been seized ( Americans
would pay the ship owners)
Choosing peace cost Adams his popularity with
the people and his party. The Federalists
would lose the next election but Adams had
no regrets.
Page 40
Sketch the picture and use
Path to analyze it’s
Use your notes and
knowledge of President
Jefferson’s foreign policy to
Decide what a Jefferson
should do to protect the
American ships. Place
you’re choice (a, b, c or d)
on the scale at the bottom
of this page.
Isolationism -------------------Involvement
Britain and France were at war with each other and
both were taking American ships. The British sailors
started impressing American sailors into the British
Navy. Britain justified impressments by claiming
American sailors were deserters. Most Americans
wanted war with Britain.
The Pirates of Barbary Coast were also causing
problems for Jefferson. The Pirates were taking the
wealth and holding the crew for ransom. Previous
presidents Washington and Adams paid tribute (money
to keep peace) to protect American ships. Jefferson did
no know what to do – pay or go to war.
What should Jefferson do about the Pirates?
A. Pay the increased tribute as requested and avoid
B. Send a peace envoy to negotiate
Page 41
C. Send troops to force the pirates to allow American
ships to trade in the Mediterranean
D. Order American ships out of the Mediterranean to
avoid conflict.
Page 42
Thomas Jefferson
April 1743 – July 4, 1826
• Create a tombstone for
Jefferson based on his
foreign policies
Page 43
• Jefferson tried to protect American ships
from Pirates but there still was a problem.
They finally agreed after the capture of the
Philadelphia. Jefferson would pay ransom
and tributes , and the attacks would stop.
• Jefferson could not stop the British and
French from attacking American ships, so
he started an embargo (blockade) called the
Embargo Act of 1807. No foreign ships
could enter United States ports in an
attempt to hurt the economies of the British
and French. Unfortunately, he only hurt the
American economy.
Page 44
Sketch the picture and use
Path to analyze it’s
Use your notes and
knowledge of President
Madison’s foreign policy to
Decide what a Madison
should do to protect the
American ships. Place
you’re choice (a, b, c or d)
on the scale at the bottom
of this page.
Isolationism -------------------Involvement
Madison decided to try something new with Britain
and France – If you stop attacking American Ships, we
will not trade with your enemies. Napoleon agreed,
but Britain did not.
Madison had another problem – the Native Americans.
The British in Canada were on the side of the Native
Americans and were supplying them with weapons.
After many problems with the Native Americans,
Madison did not know what to do. Olive branch or
What should Madison do to protect the American
sailors and the American settlers?
A. Declare war on Britain and attack the British on land
and sea.
B. Declare war on Britain, but only wage a war at sea.
Page 45
C. Delay declaring war on Britain until the country is
more prepared
D. Do not declare war on Britain. The risks are not
worth it.
Page 46
James Madison
March 1751 – June 1836
• Create a tombstone for
Madison based on his
foreign policies
Madison chooses the arrows and Congress declared war on Britain
in 1812 – the War of 1812
Invading Canada - War hawks thought it would be an easy victory.
They thought the Canadians would welcome the Americans as
liberators. Canadians considered the American troops as
unwelcome intruders. The Americans failed to conquer Canada ,
but they did make the lands west of the Appalachians safer from
Native Americans.
Washington and Baltimore - The British invaded Washington DC
and burned the city and the capitol. They then headed to Baltimore
by boat. The British bombed Fort McHenry at the entrance to the
Baltimore Harbor through the night. Frances Scott Key wrote a
poem after morning came and the American Flag was still there
named the Star Spangled Banner
Battle of New Orleans – Fought after the peace treaty had already
been signed because they did not know that the war was over.
Andrew Jackson was in charge of defending New Orleans.
Americans defeated the British troops for the greatest American
victory of the war.
War ended with the Treaty of Ghent –
1.There would be no winner. They would just stop fighting
2. Americans had fought for what they believed in and had the
respect of other nations
3. Gave Americans confidence in themselves
Page 47
Page 48
Sketch the picture and use
Path to analyze it’s
Use your notes and
knowledge of President
Monroe’s foreign policy to
Decide what a Monroe
should do to protect the
American ships. Place
you’re choice (a, b, c or d)
on the scale at the bottom
of this page.
Isolationism -------------------Involvement
Returns America to a policy of isolationism
Mexico gains independence from Spain in 1821
after 11 years of fighting sparked by Father Hidalgo
on September 16, 1810. Many other South
American countries fought for independence from
Britain supports these new revolutionaries and
wants the United States to send a message with
Britain to Europe to leave Latin America alone.
What should Monroe do to support the new Latin
American nations?
A. Join in an alliance with Britain to support Latin
American independence
B. Do not join an alliance with Britain and warn
Europe to stay out of Latin America
C. Allow the Latin American countries to defend
D. Work to create an alliance with all the Latin
American countries to defend their independence
against Europe interference.
Page 49
Page 50
James Monroe
April 1758 - July 1831
• Create a tombstone for
Monroe based on his
foreign policies
Page 51
Monroe asks Jefferson and Madison for advice and
both liked the idea of sending a message with
John Quincy Adams, Monroe’s Secretary of State,
said the United States needs to send the message
by itself and Monroe agrees.
Monroe Doctrine
1. Nations of North and South America are not to
be considered for future colonization by any
European power.
2. Any attempt to take any part of Latin America
would be considered a threat to the United States.
Americans loved it, but the Europeans did not.
Along with isolationism, the Monroe Doctrine
became the foundation for United States Foreign
This sent the world a message that the United
States is no longer a collection of states but a
strong, confident nation to be respected
Study Guide
Jefferson’s foreign policy
Did Jefferson’s embargo work? Why?
Why was Britain a problem at sea?
How did Britain justify impressing American sailors?
United States Seal
Students should be able to describe the
seal and understand the symbolism.
What is E Pluribus Unum the motto?
Washington’s foreign policy
Students should be able to describe
Washington’s foreign policy
What did Washington do to avoid pirate
Adams’s foreign policy
Who was a problem for Adams?
What was Adam’s foreign policy and how
did he feel about American responses?
Why were Americans upset with Adams’
What did Adams do to avoid pirate
Madison’s foreign policy
Why did the War Hawks want to go to war with Britain?
Who wrote the Star Spangled Banner?
What was the problem in the Ohio River Valley?
Students should be able to recall facts about the Battle of
New Orleans.
List the things Americans got out of the War of 1812.
How was Madison different from previous presidents?
Monroe’s foreign policy
What did the Monroe Doctrine say to European nations?
Multimedia links
– How Thomas Jefferson Worked
– What was America’s first terrorist
– Fourth of July 1826
– Battle of New Orleans
Suggested Reading
Lamar Junior High Library
• The Jeffersonian Republicans :
the Louisiana Purchase and
the War of 1812
• Andrew Jackson / Margaret L.
• The star-spangled banner / by
Stuart A. Kallen.
• Broken days / Ann Rinaldi.
• Little house by Boston Bay /
Melissa Wiley
Fort Bend County Libraries
• Washington ablaze : the
War of 1812
• The War of 1812
• The battle for St. Michaels
• The War of 1812 soldier at
New Orleans
• The smuggler's treasure / by
Sarah Masters Buckey.