Unit 2
Expanding Zones of Exchange
(500-1200)
Global History II Review
1
Gupta Empire (320-550)
• Hinduism strongly influenced people
• Efficient government (bureaucracy)
• Caste System organized society
– Untouchables were at the bottom (outcasts)
• Scientific Contributions
– Mathematics: Concept of Zero, Numbers
– Medicine
– Architecture
– Literature
2
Tang and Song Dynasties
• Chinese Dynasties (618-907) (960-1279)
– Conquered territory and made tributary states
– Highly educated ruling class
– Social Structure:Gentry, Peasants, Merchants
– Expanded trade
– Built Canals to encourage trade and transp.
– Literature and Arts developed
– Huge influence on Japan
3
Byzantine Empire and Russia
• Byzantine Empire (565-1453)
– Preserved and spread Greco-Roman culture
– Justinian’s Code (updated Roman laws)
– Engineering and Architectural achievements
• Used Roman engineering knowledge
• Built large churches
– Art: Mosaics and Icons
– Orthodox Christian Church
• Split from the Roman Catholic Church
4
Byzantine Empire and Russia
• Russia (800s- present)
– Early trade center of Kiev emerged
– Written language developed by Christian
Byzantine missionaries
– Developed Orthodox Christianity
– Autocratic government (Czars= Caesars)
– Adopted much from the Byzantine Empire
5
Islamic Civilization
• Spread of Islam
– Caliph is a successor to Muhammad
– Middle East, North Africa, Spain, Sicily, India
and Southeast Asia
– Trade networks and conquest
• Islamic Law
– Sharia is law regulating all aspects of life
– Sunni and Shi’a split over disagreement on
caliph’s authority
6
Islamic Civilization
• Society
– Permitted social mobility
– Tolerant of other religions in conquered lands
– Women enjoyed more freedoms than Europe
• Islam’s Golden Age
– Preserved Greco-Roman culture
– Encouraged Education
– Art, Literature, and Medicine flourished
7
Islamic Civilization
• Mathematics and Science
– Development of Algebra and Astronomy
• Christian Europe
– Islam expanded to Spain and Sicily
– Crusades fought between Christians and
Muslims over the Holy Lands (Jerusalem)
8
Medieval Europe
• Middle Ages (500-1450s)
– Emerged as small independent kingdoms
after the fall of the Roman Empire
• Franks
– Germanic empire developed in (France)
– Charlemagne became Holy Roman Emperor
– Encouraged learning
9
Medieval Europe
• Feudalism
– Political system using land for loyalty
– Social Structure
• King, Nobles, Knights, Peasants
– Knights lived by a code of Chivalry (loyalty)
• Manorialism
– Economic system structured around lord’s
manor or estate
– Peasants (serfs) work the land, lord protects
10
Medieval Europe
• Church in Medieval Life
– Church hierarchy similar to feudal society
– Church was most important thing in life
– Church had more power than kings
• Cultural Achievements
– Literature developed
– Gothic architecture developed
11
Crusades
• Causes
– Byzantine Empire was fighting Muslim Turks
– Pope wanted to increase power
– Nobles wanted to gain wealth and land
– Serfs hoped to escape feudal oppression
• Effects
– Increased trade between Europe and Asia
– Expanded learning of Greco-Roman culture
– Power of the Church decreased
12
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Unit 2 Expanding Zones of Exchange